Ying Meng, Mathew R. Voisin, Suganth Suppiah, Zamir Merali, Ali Moghaddamjou, Naif M. Alotaibi, Arbelle Manicat-Emo, Shelly Weiss, Cristina Go, Blathnaid McCoy, Elizabeth J. Donner and James T. Rutka
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) monitoring is an important method of identifying the seizure focus in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. While previous studies have demonstrated low rates of surgical complications, reported rates of surgical site infection (SSI) are highly variable. To date, no studies have specifically evaluated the patient or operative risk factors contributing to SSI. The goals of this study were to examine the rate of SSI after iEEG monitoring for epilepsy workup in pediatric patients and to determine the variables that might contribute to the development of SSI.
A retrospective analysis of hospital charts at the Hospital for Sick Children was performed for all patients who had undergone iEEG monitoring between 2000 and 2016. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to look for statistically significant variables in relation to SSI.
Among 199 patients eligible for analysis, 8 (4.0%) developed SSIs within a period ranging from 21 to 51 days postoperatively. Univariate analysis yielded 4 factors related to SSI: number of people present in the operating room on electrode insertion (p = 0.02), length of insertion surgery (p = 0.04), previous operation at the same surgical site (p = 0.04), and number of depth electrodes inserted (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that both the number of people present during the implant operation (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.70) and the number of depth electrodes inserted (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.44–8.59) independently contributed to SSI.
This is the largest case series and the first comprehensive review of both patient and operative risk factors in the development of SSI from iEEG monitoring in a pediatric population. The authors’ institution had a lower rate of infection than those in most other studies, which could be explained by their protocol of administering intravenous antibiotics perioperatively and post–implant removal antibiotics for 14 days. The authors found a correlation between SSI and the number of people present during the implant operation, as well as the number of depth electrodes; both may contribute to breaks in sterility.
Ying Meng, Christopher B. Pople, Suneil K. Kalia, Lorraine V. Kalia, Benjamin Davidson, Luca Bigioni, Daniel Zhengze Li, Suganth Suppiah, Karim Mithani, Nadia Scantlebury, Michael L. Schwartz, Clement Hamani and Nir Lipsman
The development of transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has revitalized the practice of lesioning procedures in functional neurosurgery. Previous health economic analysis found MRgFUS thalamotomy to be a cost-effective treatment for patients with essential tremor, supporting its reimbursement. With the publication of level I evidence in support of MRgFUS thalamotomy for patients with tremor-dominant Parkinson’s disease (TDPD), the authors performed a health economic comparison between MRgFUS, deep brain stimulation (DBS), and medical therapy.
The authors used a decision tree model with rollback analysis and one-factor sensitivity analysis. Literature searches of MRgFUS thalamotomy and unilateral DBS of the ventrointermediate nucleus of the thalamus for TDPD were performed to determine the utility and probabilities for the model. Costs in Canadian dollars (CAD) were derived from the Schedule of Benefits and Fees in Ontario, Canada, and expert opinion on usage.
MRgFUS was associated with an expected cost of $14,831 CAD. Adding MRgFUS to continued medical therapy resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $30,078 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), which remained cost-effective under various scenarios in the sensitivity analysis. Comparing DBS to MRgFUS, while DBS did not achieve the willingness-to-pay threshold ($56,503 per QALY) in the base case scenario, it did so under several scenarios in the sensitivity analysis.
MRgFUS thalamotomy is a cost-effective treatment for patients with TDPD, particularly over continued medical therapy. While MRgFUS remains competitive with DBS, the cost-effectiveness advantage is less substantial. These results will help inform the integration of this technology in the healthcare system.