Weijun Wang, Steve Swenson, Hee-Yeon Cho, Florence M. Hofman, Axel H. Schönthal and Thomas C. Chen
Many pharmaceutical agents are highly potent but are unable to exert therapeutic activity against disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes their brain entry. One such agent is bortezomib (BZM), a proteasome inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Preclinical studies established that BZM can be effective against glioblastoma (GBM), but only when the drug is delivered via catheter directly into the brain lesion, not after intravenous systemic delivery. The authors therefore explored alternative options of BZM delivery to the brain that would avoid invasive procedures and minimize systemic exposure.
Using mouse and rat GBM models, the authors applied intranasal drug delivery, where they co-administered BZM together with NEO100, a highly purified, GMP-manufactured version of perillyl alcohol that is used in clinical trials for intranasal therapy of GBM patients.
The authors found that intranasal delivery of BZM combined with NEO100 significantly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing animals over those that received vehicle alone and also over those that received BZM alone or NEO100 alone. Moreover, BZM concentrations in the brain were higher after intranasal co-delivery with NEO100 as compared to delivery in the absence of NEO100.
This study demonstrates that intranasal delivery with a NEO100-based formulation enables noninvasive, therapeutically effective brain delivery of a pharmaceutical agent that otherwise does not efficiently cross the BBB.
Steve S. Cho, Jun Jeon, Love Buch, Shayoni Nag, MacLean Nasrallah, Philip S. Low, M. Sean Grady, Sunil Singhal and John Y. K. Lee
Intraoperative molecular imaging with tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes can enhance resection rates. In contrast to visible-light fluorophores (e.g., 5-aminolevulinic-acid), near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores have increased photon tissue penetration and less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. The second-window ICG (SWIG) technique relies on passive accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG) in neoplastic tissues. OTL38, conversely, targets folate receptor overexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. In this study, we compare the properties of these 2 modalities for NIR imaging of pituitary adenomas to better understand the potential for NIR imaging in neurosurgery.
A total of 39 patients with pituitary adenomas were enrolled between June 2015 and January 2018 in 2, sequential, IRB-approved studies. Sixteen patients received systemic ICG infusions 24 hours prior to surgery, and another 23 patients received OTL38 infusions 2–3 hours prior to surgery. NIR fluorescence signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was recorded during and after resection. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the 23 adenomas resected from patients who received OTL38 to assess expression of folate receptor–alpha (FRα).
All 16 adenomas operated on after ICG administration demonstrated strong NIR fluorescence (mean SBR 4.1 ± 0.69 [SD]). There was no statistically significant difference between the 9 functioning and 7 nonfunctioning adenomas (p = 0.9). After administration of OTL38, the mean SBR was 1.7 ± 0.47 for functioning adenomas, 2.6 ± 0.91 for all nonfunctioning adenomas, and 3.2 ± 0.53 for the subset of FRα-overexpressing adenomas. Tissue identification with white light alone for all adenomas demonstrated 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity. SWIG demonstrated 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity for both functioning and nonfunctioning adenomas. OTL38 was 75% sensitive and 100% specific for all nonfunctioning adenomas, but when assessment was limited to the 9 FRα-overexpressing adenomas, the sensitivity and specificity of OTL38 were both 100%.
Intraoperative imaging with NIR fluorophores demonstrates highly sensitive detection of pituitary adenomas. OTL38, a folate-receptor–targeted fluorophore, is highly specific for nonfunctioning adenomas but has no utility in functioning adenomas. SWIG, which relies on passive diffusion into neoplastic tissue, is applicable to both functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, but it is less specific than targeted fluorophores. Thus, targeted and nontargeted NIR fluorophores play important, yet distinct, roles in intraoperative imaging. Selectively and intelligently using either agent has the potential to greatly improve resection rates and outcomes for patients with intracranial tumors.
John Y. K. Lee, Steve S. Cho, Ryan Zeh, John T. Pierce, Maria Martinez-Lage, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer, Jason G. Newman, Kim O. Learned, Caitlin White, Julia Kharlip, Peter Snyder, Philip S. Low, Sunil Singhal and M. Sean Grady
Pituitary adenomas account for approximately 10% of intracranial tumors and have an estimated prevalence of 15%–20% in the general US population. Resection is the primary treatment for pituitary adenomas, and the transsphenoidal approach remains the most common. The greatest challenge with pituitary adenomas is that 20% of patients develop tumor recurrence. Current approaches to reduce recurrence, such as intraoperative MRI, are costly, associated with high false-positive rates, and not recommended. Pituitary adenomas are known to overexpress folate receptor alpha (FRα), and it was hypothesized that OTL38, a folate analog conjugated to a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, could provide real-time intraoperative visual contrast of the tumor versus the surrounding nonneoplastic tissues. The preliminary results of this novel clinical trial are presented.
Nineteen adult patients who presented with pituitary adenoma were enrolled. Patients were infused with OTL38 2–4 hours prior to surgery. A 4-mm endoscope with both visible and NIR light capabilities was used to visualize the pituitary adenoma and its margins in real time during surgery. The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was recorded for each tumor and surrounding tissues at various endoscope-to-sella distances. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess the FRα expression levels in all specimens and classify patients as having either high or low FRα expression.
Data from 15 patients (4 with null cell adenomas, 1 clinically silent gonadotroph, 1 totally silent somatotroph, 5 with a corticotroph, 3 with somatotrophs, and 1 somatocorticotroph) were analyzed in this preliminary analysis. Four patients were excluded for technical considerations. Intraoperative NIR imaging delineated the main tumors in all 15 patients with an average SBR of 1.9 ± 0.70. The FRα expression level of the adenomas and endoscope-to-sella distance had statistically significant impacts on the fluorescent SBRs. Additional considerations included adenoma functional status and time from OTL38 injection. SBRs were 3.0 ± 0.29 for tumors with high FRα expression (n = 3) and 1.6 ± 0.43 for tumors with low FRα expression (n = 12; p < 0.05). In 3 patients with immunohistochemistry-confirmed FRα overexpression (2 patients with null cell adenoma and 1 patient with clinically silent gonadotroph), intraoperative NIR imaging demonstrated perfect classification of the tumor margins with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, for these 3 patients, intraoperative residual fluorescence predicted postoperative MRI results with perfect concordance.
Pituitary adenomas and their margins can be intraoperatively visualized with the preoperative injection of OTL38, a folate analog conjugated to NIR dye. Tumor-to-background contrast is most pronounced in adenomas that overexpress FRα. Intraoperative SBR at the appropriate endoscope-to-sella distance can predict adenoma FRα expression status in real time. This work suggests that for adenomas with high FRα expression, it may be possible to identify margins and to predict postoperative MRI findings.