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Jacques J. Morcos and Stephan A. Munich

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Stephan A. Munich, Mona Sazgar, Walter Grand and Jody Leonardo

Intraoperative neuromonitoring utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) is rarely performed during neuroendoscopy. The authors present a case in which this monitoring modality was used for a patient with a colloid cyst in preparation for an open craniotomy should an endoscopic approach fail. In this case, EEG serendipitously captured near-complete cessation of electrocerebral activity that occurred during intraventricular irrigation in response to ventricular collapse and resulted in no postoperative deficits. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe suppression of electrical activity captured by EEG during neuroendoscopy. Although they describe a transient phenomenon that resulted in no residual cognitive or neurological deficits, the importance of cautious introduction of ventricular irrigation, the need to carefully monitor intracranial pressure during neuroendoscopic procedures, and the need to pay close attention to irrigation temperature and composition should not be underestimated. Additional studies regarding the utility of EEG in alerting neurosurgeons to adverse electrical cerebral activity during neuroendoscopy are warranted.

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Kunal Vakharia, Stephan A. Munich, Michael K. Tso, Muhammad Waqas and Elad I. Levy

Stent-assisted coiling offers a potential solution for coil embolization of broad-based aneurysms. Challenges associated with navigating a microcatheter beyond these aneurysms sometimes require looping the microcatheter within the aneurysm dome. Reducing microcatheter loops within domes can be difficult, and anchor techniques have been described, including balloon anchor, stent-retriever anchor, and stent anchor techniques. The authors present a patient requiring stent-assisted coiling of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm in whom a stent anchor technique was used to reduce a microcatheter loop within an aneurysm dome before coil embolization. Postembolization angiographic runs showed complete coil occlusion of the aneurysm with approximately 35% packing density.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/zHR1ZOArUro.

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Jacques J. Morcos, Stephan A. Munich, Tiit Mathiesen, Marc P. Sindou and Vinko V. Dolenc

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Elad I. Levy, Stephan A. Munich, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Peter Kan and B. Gregory Thompson

Remarkable developments in the field of endovascular neurosurgery have been witnessed in the last decade. The success of endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke treatment is now irrefutable, making it an accepted standard of care. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms is no longer limited to primary coiling but now includes options such as stent or balloon assistance and flow diversion and applications utilizing neck reconstruction, intrasaccular, and bifurcation-specific devices. Balloons, liquid embolic agents, and flow-directed catheters have revolutionized the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. The ongoing development of endovascular tools has led to novel and expanding approaches (for example, transvenous arteriovenous malformation embolization and transradial access). With improved technology, transposterior communicating artery access and other endovascular strategies are being applied successfully across the anterior and posterior circulations and to lesions once deemed only surgically approachable. Yet, we would be remiss to attribute the successes of endovascular strategies only to the development of their tools. Improvements in both noninvasive and angiographic imaging (such as three-dimensional road map guidance) have provided a greater understanding of pathologic entities and allowed the pursuit of endovascular cures.

In this issue of Neurosurgical Focus, we present a wide range of endovascular strategies for a variety of neurovascular pathologies. We hope this video supplement will not only demonstrate the applicability of tried-and-true endovascular strategies to difficult clinical situations but also highlight new and developing endovascular technologies. We thank the authors for their outstanding contributions.

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Kunal Vakharia, Stephan A. Munich, Muhammad Waqas, Swetadri Vasan Setlur Nagesh and Elad I. Levy

Progressive deconstruction with flow diversion using a Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic) can be utilized to promote thrombosis of broad-based fusiform aneurysms. Current flow diverters require a 0.027-inch microcatheter for deployment. The authors present a patient with a fusiform P2–3 junction posterior cerebral artery aneurysm in which they demonstrate the importance of haptics in microwire manipulation to recognize large-vessel anatomy versus perforator anatomy that may overlap, especially when access is needed in distal tortuous circulations. In addition, the authors demonstrate the need for appropriate visualization before PED deployment. Postembolization runs demonstrated optimal wall apposition with contrast stasis within the aneurysm dome.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/8kfsSvN3XqM.

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Stephan A. Munich, Lee A. Tan, Kiffon M. Keigher, Michael Chen, Roham Moftakhar and Demetrius K. Lopes

Object

Vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms (VFAs) are rare lesions characterized by abnormal dilation and tortuosity of the vertebral and/or basilar arteries. Untreated, these aneurysms have a tendency to progress, often resulting in neurological symptoms or rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The microsurgical treatment of these lesions can be difficult due to their location and the circumferential involvement of the arteries. These features make microsurgical treatment prone to high morbidity. The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has gained popularity for the treatment of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. Its use in the posterior circulation has been limited, likely due to a fear of perforating artery occlusion.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed their database of patients treated with the PED and identified 12 patients who had VFAs. The clinical features, complications, and outcomes of these patients were analyzed.

Results

At an average follow-up of 11 months, the mean modified Rankin Scale score was 1.9. Complete aneurysm occlusion was seen in 90% of the patients with radiographic follow-up. Three patients suffered new neurological deficits postoperatively. One of these patients died, while the remaining 2 demonstrated significant clinical improvement at follow-up.

Conclusions

With attention to the anatomy of perforating arteries, staged contralateral vertebral artery sacrifice, and adequate platelet inhibition, PED may be an effective treatment option—alone or in a hybrid construct with stents of less coverage for VFAs—with an acceptable complication rate.

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Andrew Kelly Johnson, Stephan A. Munich, Lee A. Tan, Daniel Mark Heiferman, Kiffon Marie Keigher and Demetrius Klee Lopes

OBJECT

Stent-assisted embolization (SAE) has broadened the scope of endovascular cerebral aneurysm treatment. The risks associated with stent selection and configuration are poorly defined. In this study, the authors aimed to characterize the risk factors that contribute to complications in SAE of intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

Over a 10-year period, a single surgeon treated 486 aneurysms with SAE in which open-cell Neuroform or closed-cell Enterprise stents were used. Single stents were used in 386 cases, overlapping stents were deployed in 80 cases, and Y-configuration stents were used in the remaining 20 cases. All neurological complications, which included transient deficits, were analyzed; disabling strokes and death were considered major complications. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the influence of aneurysm size and morphology, aneurysm location, stent selection, and stent configuration on complication rates.

RESULTS

There were 7 deaths (1.4%), 9 major strokes (1.9%), and 18 minor neurological complications (3.7%). For all complications, multivariate analysis revealed that large aneurysm size (10–25 mm; p = 0.01), giant aneurysm size (> 25 mm; p = 0.04), fusiform aneurysm morphology (p = 0.03), and using a Y-configuration stent (p = 0.048) were independent risk factors. For the major complications, independent risk factors included an aneurysm in the posterior circulation (p = 0.02), using an overlapping stent configuration (p = 0.03), and using a Y-configuration stent (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In this series, SAE for cerebral aneurysm treatment carried an acceptable complication rate. With continued innovations in techniques and devices and with increased experience, the complication rates associated with SAE may be even lower in the future.

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Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Stephan A. Munich, Naser Jaleel, Marshall C. Cress, Chandan Krishna, Ashish Sonig, Kenneth V. Snyder, Adnan H. Siddiqui and Elad I. Levy

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become increasingly used for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Given its high metal surface area coverage, there is concern for the patency of branch vessels that become covered by the device. Limited data exist regarding the patency of branch vessels adjacent to aneurysms that are covered by PEDs. The authors assessed the rate of intracranial internal carotid artery, anterior circulation branch vessel patency following PED placement at their institution.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 82 patients who underwent PED treatment between 2009 and 2014 and in whom the PED was identified to cover branch vessels. Patency of the anterior cerebral, posterior communicating, anterior choroidal, and ophthalmic arteries was evaluated using digital subtraction angiography preoperatively and postoperatively after PED deployment and at longer-term follow-up.

RESULTS

Of the 127 arterial branches covered by PEDs, there were no immediate postoperative occlusions. At angiographic follow-up (mean 10 months, range 3–34.7 months), arterial side branches were occluded in 13 (15.8%) of 82 aneurysm cases and included 2 anterior cerebral arteries, 8 ophthalmic arteries, and 3 posterior communicating arteries. No cases of anterior choroidal artery occlusion were observed. Patients with branch occlusion did not experience any neurological symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

In this large series, the longer-term rate of radiographic side branch arterial occlusion after coverage by a flow diverter was 15.8%. Terminal branch vessels, such as the anterior choroidal artery, remained patent in this series. The authors' series suggests that branch vessel occlusions are clinically silent and should not deter aneurysm treatment with flow diversion.

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David A. Stidd, Joshua Wewel, Ali J. Ghods, Stephan Munich, Anthony Serici, Kiffon M. Keigher, Heike Theessen, Roham Moftakhar and Demetrius K. Lopes

Object

Cerebrovascular lesions can have complicated abnormal anatomy that is not completely characterized by CT or MR angiography. Although 3D rotational angiography provides superior spatial and temporal resolution, catheter angiograms are not easily registered to the patient, limiting the use of these images as a source for neuronavigation. However, 3D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) contains not only vascular anatomy but also facial surface anatomy data. The authors report a novel technique to register 3D DSA images by using only the surface anatomy contained within the data set without having to fuse the DSA image set to other imaging modalities or use fiducial markers.

Methods

A cadaver model was first created to assess the accuracy of neuronavigation based on 3D DSA images registered by facial surface anatomy. A 3D DSA scan was obtained of a formalin-fixed cadaver head, with acquisitions of mask and contrast runs. The right common carotid artery was injected prior to the contrast run with a 45% contrast solution diluted with water-soluble red liquid latex. One week later, the head was registered to a neuronavigation system loaded with the 3D DSA images acquired earlier using facial surface anatomy. A right pterional craniotomy was performed and 10 different vascular landmarks were identified and measured for accuracy using the neuronavigation system. Neuronavigation based only on 3D DSA was then used to guide an open clipping procedure for a patient who presented with a ruptured distal lenticulostriate aneurysm.

Results

The accuracy of the measurements for the cadaver model was 0.71 ± 0.25 mm (mean ± SE), which is superior to the 1.8–5 mm reported for neuronavigation. The 3D DSA–based navigation-assisted surgery for the distal lenticulostriate aneurysm aided in localization, resulting in a small craniotomy and minimal brain dissection.

Conclusions

This is the first example of frameless neuronavigation based on 3D catheter angiography registered by only the surface anatomy data contained within the 3D DSA image set. This is an easily applied technique that is beneficial for accurately locating vascular pathological entities and reducing the dissection burden of vascular lesions.