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Dan Christensson, Hans Säveland, Stefan Zygmunt, Kjell Jonsson and Urban Rydholm

Object. The authors performed a prospective study to determine whether cervical laminectomy without simultaneous fusion results in spinal instability.

Methods. Because of clinical and radiographic signs of cord compression, 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (including one with Bechterew's disease) and severe involvement of the cervical spine underwent decompressive laminectomy without fusion performed on one or more levels. Preoperative flexion—extension radiographs demonstrated dislocation but no signs of instability at the level of cord compression.

Clinical and radiological reexamination were performed twice at a median of 15 months (6–24 months) and 43 months (28–72 months) postoperatively. One patient developed severe vertical translocation 28 months after undergoing a C-1 laminectomy, which led to sudden tetraplegia. She required reoperation in which posterior fusion was performed. No signs of additional instability at the operated levels were found in the remaining 14 patients. In three patients increased but stable dislocation was demonstrated. The results of clinical examination were favorable in most patients, with improvement of neurological symptoms and less pain.

Conclusions. The authors conclude that decompressive laminectomy in which the facet joints are preserved can be performed in the rheumatoid arthritis-affected cervical spine in selected patients in whom signs of cord compression are demonstrated, but in whom radiographic and preoperative signs of instability are not. Performing a simultaneous fusion procedure does not always appear necessary. Vertical translocation must be detected early, and if present, a C-1 laminectomy should be followed by occipitocervical fusion.

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Johan Lundberg, Carina B. Johansson, Stefan Jonsson and Staffan Holmin


Several older studies report a low risk for parenchymal access to the CNS by surgical techniques. In more recent studies, including those with post-puncture CT scans, there are indications that the risk of bleeding might approach 8%. New therapies, such as those that use viral vectors, modified mRNA, or cell transplantation, will probably warrant more parenchymal access to the CNS. Other minimally invasive routes might then be tempting to explore. This study was designed in 2 parts to address the possibility of using the endovascular route. The first aim was to test the ability to create a parenchymal micro-working channel to the CNS in macaque monkeys through the vessel wall. Second, the biocompatibility of a device-associated, detached, distal securing plug that was made of nitinol was investigated in swine for 1 year.


Trans-vessel wall intervention in the middle cerebral artery and associated cerebral parenchyma was performed in 4 rhesus macaque monkeys using a full clinical angiography suite. A contrast agent and methylene blue were injected to test the working channel and then detached at the distal end to act as a securing plug through the vessel wall. One-year follow-ups were also performed using angiography and histological analysis in 10 swine with 24 implants that were distributed in the external carotid artery tree.


The cerebral interventions were performed without acute bleeding. Both the contrast agent and methylene blue were infused into the brain parenchyma and subarachnoidal space via the endovascular micro-working channel (7 injections in 4 animals). In the 1-year follow-up period, the implant that was left in the external carotid vessel wall in the swine was covered by the endothelium, which was followed by dislodgement just outside the blood vessel with thin capsule formation. No stenosis in the artery was detected on 1-year angiography. The animals showed normal behavior and blood sample results during the follow-up period. This is the first histological demonstration of nitinol biocompatibility when the implant is positioned through an arterial wall and indicates that the trans-vessel wall technique is not comparable with stent placement and its ability to induce intimal hyperplasia and restenosis.


This study demonstrates that the trans-vessel wall technique is applicable to brain intervention in macaque monkeys, providing a micro-working channel for delivery or sampling. The long-term follow-up study of the detached device in swine showed no clinical or biochemical complications and a normal angiography appearance.