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  • Author or Editor: Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris x
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Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Robert M. Starke, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Samantha Witte, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Aaron S. Dumont

Object

Surgical clipping of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms can be challenging and carries a potentially significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Experience with endovascular therapy has been limited to a few studies. The authors assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of endovascular therapy in the largest series of proximal and distal PICA aneurysms to date.

Methods

A total of 76 patients, 54 with proximal and 22 with distal PICA aneurysms, underwent endovascular treatment at Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience between 2001 and 2011.

Results

Endovascular treatment was successful in 52 patients (96.3%) with proximal aneurysms and 19 patients (86.4%) with distal aneurysms. Treatment consisted of selective aneurysm coiling in 60 patients (84.5%) (including 4 with stent assistance and 4 with balloon assistance) and parent vessel trapping in 11 patients (15.5%). Specifically, a deconstructive procedure was necessary in 9.6% of proximal aneurysms (5 of 52) and 31.6% of distal aneurysms (6 of 19). There were 9 overall procedural complications (12.7%), 6 infarcts (8.5%; 4 occurring after deliberate occlusion of the PICA), and 3 intraprocedural ruptures (4.2%). The rate of procedure-related permanent morbidity was 2.8%. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 63.4% of patients (45 of 71). One patient (1.4%) treated with selective aneurysm coiling suffered a rehemorrhage on postoperative Day 15. The mean angiographic follow-up time was 17.2 months. Recurrence and re-treatment rates were, respectively, 20% and 17.1% for proximal aneurysms compared with 30.8% and 23.1% for distal aneurysms. Favorable outcomes (moderate, mild, or no disability) at follow-up were seen in 93% of patients with unruptured aneurysms and in 78.7% of those with ruptured aneurysms.

Conclusions

Endovascular therapy is a feasible, safe, and effective treatment in patients with proximal and distal PICA aneurysms, providing excellent patient outcomes and adequate protection against rehemorrhage. The long-term incidence of aneurysm recanalization appears to be high, especially in distal aneurysms, and requires careful angiographic follow-up.

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Peter S. Amenta, Muhammad S. Ali, Aaron S. Dumont, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Intravenous and intraarterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remains underutilized in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, largely due to strict adherence to the concept of the therapeutic time window for administration. Recent efforts to expand the number of patients eligible for thrombolysis have been mirrored by an evolution in endovascular recanalization technology and techniques. As a result, there is a growing need to establish efficient and reliable means by which to select candidates for endovascular intervention beyond the traditional criteria of time from symptom onset. Perfusion imaging techniques, particularly CT perfusion used in combination with CT angiography, represent an increasingly recognized means by which to identify those patients who stand to benefit most from endovascular recanalization. Additionally, CT perfusion and CT angiography appear to provide sufficient data by which to exclude patients in whom there is little chance of neurological recovery or a substantial risk of postprocedure symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. The authors review the current literature as it pertains to the limitations of time-based selection of patients for intervention, the increasing utilization of endovascular therapy, and the development of a CT perfusion-based selection of acute stroke patients for endovascular recanalization. Future endeavors must prospectively evaluate the utility and safety of CT perfusion-based selection of candidates for endovascular intervention.

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George M. Ghobrial, Anil K. Nair, Richard T. Dalyai, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Aaron S. Dumont, Robert H. Rosenwasser and L. Fernando Gonzalez

Multimodal endovascular intervention is becoming more commonplace for the acute intervention of ischemic stroke. Hyperdensity in a portion of the treated territory is a common finding on postthrombolytic noncontrast CT (NCCT), but its significance is poorly understood. The authors conducted a single-institution, retrospective chart review of patients who had intraarterial thrombolysis of the anterior circulation between 2010 and 2011 with evidence of hyperdensity on NCCT following recanalization. Eighteen patients had evidence of postoperative contrast stasis causing hyperdensity on NCCT. One hundred percent of the patients had MR imaging evidence of completed strokes postoperatively in the same distribution as the stasis. Stasis on NCCT after intervention had a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 0% for predicting stroke, respectively. Furthermore, the positive predictive value was 100%. The presence of contrast stasis on postthrombolytic NCCT correlates well with stroke seen on subsequent MR imaging.

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Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

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Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

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Mario Zanaty, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Shannon W. Clark, Cory D. Bovenzi, Mark Saigh, Eric Schwartz, Emily S. I. Kunkel, Alexandra S. Efthimiadis-Budike, Pascal Jabbour, Richard Dalyai, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECT

The factors that contribute to periprocedural complications following cranioplasty, including patient-specific and surgery-specific factors, need to be thoroughly assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors that predispose patients to an increased risk of cranioplasty complications and death.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of all patients at their institution who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy for stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and trauma between January 2000 and December 2011. The following predictors were tested: age, sex, race, diabetic status, hypertensive status, tobacco use, reason for craniectomy, urgency status of the craniectomy, graft material, and location of cranioplasty. The cranioplasty complications included reoperation for hematoma, hydrocephalus postcranioplasty, postcranioplasty seizures, and cranioplasty graft infection. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Confidence intervals were calculated as the 95% CI.

RESULTS

Three hundred forty-eight patients were included in the study. The overall complication rate was 31.32% (109 of 348). The mortality rate was 3.16%. Predictors of overall complications in multivariate analysis were hypertension (OR 1.92, CI 1.22–3.02), increasing age (OR 1.02, CI 1.00–1.04), and hemorrhagic stroke (OR 3.84, CI 1.93–7.63). Predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis were diabetes mellitus (OR 7.56, CI 1.56–36.58), seizures (OR 7.25, CI 1.238–42.79), bifrontal cranioplasty (OR 5.40, CI 1.20–24.27), and repeated surgery for hematoma evacuation (OR 13.00, CI 1.51–112.02). Multivariate analysis was also applied to identify the variables that affect the development of seizures, the need for reoperation for hematoma evacuation, the development of hydrocephalus, and the development of infections.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors' goal was to provide the neurosurgeon with predictors of morbidity and mortality that could be incorporated in the clinical decision-making algorithm. Control of a patient's risk factors and early recognition of complications may help practitioners avoid the exhaustive list of complications.

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Ana Rodríguez-Hernández, Ahmed J. Awad and Michael T. Lawton

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Carrie E. Andrews, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Evan M. Fitchett, Fadi Al Saiegh, Michael J. Lang, Victor M. Romo, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and M. Reid Gooch

OBJECTIVE

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is now the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large-vessel occlusion, but there remains a question of whether elderly patients benefit from this procedure to the same degree as the younger populations enrolled in the seminal trials on MT. The authors compared outcomes after MT of patients 80–89 and ≥ 90 years old with AIS to those of younger patients.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed records of patients undergoing MT at their institution to examine stroke severity, comorbid conditions, medical management, recanalization results, and clinical outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare patients < 80 years, 80–89 years, and ≥ 90 years old.

RESULTS

All groups had similar rates of comorbid disease and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, and stroke severity did not differ significantly between groups. Elderly patients had equivalent recanalization outcomes, with similar rates of readmission, 30-day mortality, and hospital-associated complications. These patients were more likely to have poor clinical outcome on discharge, as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3–6, but this difference was not significant when controlled for stroke severity, tPA administration, and recanalization results.

CONCLUSIONS

Octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians with AIS have similar rates of mortality, hospital readmission, and hospital-associated complications as younger patients after MT. Elderly patients also have the capacity to achieve good functional outcome after MT, but this potential is moderated by stroke severity and success of treatment.

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Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Fadi Al Saiegh, Breanna Valcarcel, Carrie E. Andrews, Evan Fitchett, David Nauheim, David Moskal, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Ashwini D. Sharan, Robert H. Rosenwasser and M. Reid Gooch

OBJECTIVE

The 30-day readmission rate is of increasing interest to hospital administrators and physicians, as it is used to evaluate hospital performance and is associated with increased healthcare expenditures. The estimated yearly cost to Medicare of readmissions is $17.4 billion. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services therefore track unplanned 30-day readmissions and institute penalties against hospitals whose readmission rates exceed disease-specific national standards. One of the most important conditions with potential for improvement in cost-effective care is ischemic stroke, which affects 795,000 people in the United States and is a leading cause of death and disability. Recent widespread adoption of mechanical thrombectomy has revolutionized stroke care, requiring reassessment of readmission causes and costs in this population.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed a prospectively maintained database of stroke patients and identified 561 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy between 2010 and 2019 at the authors’ institution. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify clinical variables and comorbidities related to 30-day readmissions in this patient population.

RESULTS

Of the 561 patients, 85.6% (n = 480) survived their admission and were discharged from the hospital to home or rehabilitation, and 8.8% (n = 42/480) were readmitted within 30 days. The mean time to readmission was 10.9 ± 7.9 days postdischarge. The most common reasons for readmission were infection (33.3%) and acute cardiac or cerebrovascular events (19% and 20%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension (p = 0.030; OR 2.72) and length of initial hospital stay (p = 0.040; OR 1.032) were significantly correlated with readmission within 30 days, while hemorrhagic conversion (grades 3 and 4) approached significance (p = 0.053; OR 2.23). Other factors, such as unfavorable outcome at discharge, history of coronary artery disease, and discharge destination, did not predict readmission.

CONCLUSIONS

The study data demonstrate that hypertension, length of hospital stay, and hemorrhagic conversion were predictors of 30-day hospital readmission in stroke patients after mechanical thrombectomy. Infection was the most common cause of 30-day readmission, followed by cardiac and cerebrovascular diagnoses. These results therefore may serve to identify patients within the stroke population who require increased surveillance following discharge to reduce complications and unplanned readmissions.

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Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Fadi Al Saiegh, Evan Fitchett, Carrie E. Andrews, Michael J. Lang, Ritam Ghosh, Richard F. Schmidt, Nohra Chalouhi, Guilherme Barros, Hekmat Zarzour, Victor Romo, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and M. Reid Gooch

OBJECTIVE

The advent of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has become an effective option for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in addition to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). With recent advances in device technology, MT has significantly altered the hospital course and functional outcomes of stroke patients. The authors’ goal was to establish the most up-to-date reperfusion and functional outcomes with the evolution of MT technology.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 403 patients who underwent MT for ischemic stroke at their institution from 2010 to 2017. They collected data on patient comorbidities, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on arrival, tPA administration, revascularization outcomes, and functional outcomes on discharge.

RESULTS

In 403 patients, the mean NIHSS score on presentation was 15.8 ± 6.6, with 195 (48.0%) of patients receiving tPA prior to MT. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2B or 3) was achieved in 84.4%. Hemorrhagic conversion with significant mass effect was noted in 9.9% of patients. The median lengths of ICU and hospital stay were 3.0 and 7.0 days, respectively. Functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0–2) was noted in 125 (31.0%) patients, while inpatient mortality occurred in 43 (10.7%) patients.

CONCLUSIONS

As MT has established acute ischemic stroke as a neurosurgical disease, there is a pressing need to understand the hospital course, hospital- and procedure-related complications, and outcomes for this new patient population. The authors provide a detailed account of key metrics for MT with the latest device technology and identify the predictors of unfavorable outcomes and inpatient mortality.