Weijun Wang, Alex Ghandi, Leonard Liebes, Stan G. Louie, Florence M. Hofman, Axel H. Schönthal and Thomas C. Chen
Irinotecan (CPT-11), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is a cytotoxic agent with activity against malignant gliomas and other tumors. After systemic delivery, CPT-11 is converted to its active metabolite, SN-38, which displays significantly higher cytotoxic potency. However, the achievement of therapeutically effective plasma levels of CPT-11 and SN-38 is seriously complicated by variables that affect drug metabolism in the liver. Thus the capacity of CPT-11 to be converted to the active SN38 intratumorally in gliomas was addressed.
For in vitro studies, 2 glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, were tested to determine the cytotoxic effects of CPT-11 and SN-38 in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo studies were performed by implanting U87 intracranially into athymic/nude mice. For a period of 2 weeks, SN-38, CPT-11, or vehicle was administered intratumorally by means of an osmotic minipump. One series of experiments measured the presence of SN-38 or CPT-11 in the tumor and surrounding brain tissues after 2 weeks' exposure to the drug. In a second series of experiments, after 2 weeks' exposure to the drug, the animals were maintained, in the absence of drug, until death. The survival curves were then calculated.
The results show that the animals that had CPT-11 delivered intratumorally by the minipump expressed SN-38 in vivo. Furthermore, both CPT-11 and SN-38 accumulated at higher levels in tumor tissues compared with uninvolved brain. Intratumoral delivery of CPT-11 or SN-38 extended the average survival time of tumor-bearing animals from 22 days to 46 and 65 days, respectively.
These results demonstrate that intratumorally administered CPT-11 can be effectively converted to SN-38 and this method of drug delivery is effective in extending the survival time of animals bearing malignant gliomas.
Encouse B. Golden, Hee-Yeon Cho, Ardeshir Jahanian, Florence M. Hofman, Stan G. Louie, Axel H. Schönthal and Thomas C. Chen
In a recent clinical trial, patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme benefited from chloroquine (CQ) in combination with conventional therapy (resection, temozolomide [TMZ], and radiation therapy). In the present study, the authors report the mechanism by which CQ enhances the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ to aid future studies aimed at improving this therapeutic regimen.
Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, the authors determined the mechanism by which CQ enhances TMZ cytotoxicity. They focused on the inhibition-of-autophagy mechanism of CQ by knockdown of the autophagy-associated proteins or treatment with autophagy inhibitors. This mechanism was tested using an in vivo model with subcutaneously implanted U87MG tumors from mice treated with CQ in combination with TMZ.
Knockdown of the autophagy-associated proteins (GRP78 and Beclin) or treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), blocked autophagosome formation and reduced CQ cytotoxicity, suggesting that autophagosome accumulation precedes CQ-induced cell death. In contrast, blocking autophagosome formation with knockdown of GRP78 or treatment with 3-MA enhanced TMZ cytotoxicity, suggesting that the autophagy pathway protects from TMZ-induced cytotoxicity. CQ in combination with TMZ significantly increased the amounts of LC3B-II (a marker for autophagosome levels), CHOP/GADD-153, and cleaved PARP (a marker for apoptosis) over those with untreated or individual drug-treated glioma cells. These molecular mechanisms seemed to take place in vivo as well. Subcutaneously implanted U87MG tumors from mice treated with CQ in combination with TMZ displayed higher levels of CHOP/GADD-153 than did untreated or individual drug-treated tumors.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that CQ blocks autophagy and triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby increasing the chemosensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ.
Encouse B. Golden, Hee-Yeon Cho, Florence M. Hofman, Stan G. Louie, Axel H. Schönthal and Thomas C. Chen
Chloroquine (CQ) is a quinoline-based drug widely used for the prevention and treatment of malaria. More recent studies have provided evidence that this drug may also harbor antitumor properties, whereby CQ possesses the ability to accumulate in lysosomes and blocks the cellular process of autophagy. Therefore, the authors of this study set out to investigate whether CQ analogs, in particular clinically established antimalaria drugs, would also be able to exert antitumor properties, with a specific focus on glioma cells.
Toward this goal, the authors treated different glioma cell lines with quinine (QN), quinacrine (QNX), mefloquine (MFQ), and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–induced cell death, autophagy, and cell death.
All agents blocked cellular autophagy and exerted cytotoxic effects on drug-sensitive and drug-resistant glioma cells with varying degrees of potency (QNX > MFQ > HCQ > CQ > QN). Furthermore, all quinoline-based drugs killed glioma cells that were highly resistant to temozolomide (TMZ), the current standard of care for patients with glioma. The cytotoxic mechanism involved the induction of apoptosis and ER stress, as indicated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and CHOP/GADD153. The induction of ER stress and resulting apoptosis could be confirmed in the in vivo setting, in which tumor tissues from animals treated with quinoline-based drugs showed increased expression of CHOP/GADD153, along with elevated TUNEL staining, a measure of apoptosis.
Thus, the antimalarial compounds investigated in this study hold promise as a novel class of autophagy inhibitors for the treatment of newly diagnosed TMZ-sensitive and recurrent TMZ-resistant gliomas.
Weijun Wang, Walavan Sivakumar, Shering Torres, Niyati Jhaveri, Vijaya Pooja Vaikari, Alex Gong, Adam Howard, Encouse B. Golden, Stan G. Louie, Axel H. Schönthal, Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. Chen
Bevacizumab (Avastin), an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alone or in combination with irinotecan (Camptosar [CPT-11]), is a promising treatment for recurrent glioblastoma. However, the intravenous (IV) administration of bevacizumab produces a number of systemic side effects, and the increase in survival it provides for patients with recurrent glioblastoma is still only a few months. Because bevacizumab is an antibody against VEGF, which is secreted into the extracellular milieu by glioma cells, the authors hypothesized that direct chronic intratumoral delivery techniques (i.e., convection-enhanced delivery [CED]) can be more effective than IV administration. To test this hypothesis, the authors compared outcomes for these routes of bevacizumab application with respect to animal survival, microvessel density (MVD), and inflammatory cell distribution.
Two human glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used as sources of intracranial tumor cells. The glioma cell lines were implanted into the brains of mice in an orthotopic xenograft mouse tumor model. After 7 days, the mice were treated with one of the following: 1) vehicle, 2) CED bevacizumab, 3) IV bevacizumab, 4) intraperitoneal (IP) irinotecan, 5) CED bevacizumab plus IP irinotecan, or 6) IV bevacizumab plus IP irinotecan. Alzet micro-osmotic pumps were used to introduce bevacizumab directly into the tumor. Survival was monitored. Excised tumor tissue samples were immunostained to measure MVD and inflammatory cell and growth factor levels.
The results demonstrate that mice treated with CED of bevacizumab alone or in combination with irinotecan survived longer than those treated systemically; CED-treated animals survived 30% longer than IV-treated animals. In combination studies, CED bevacizumab plus CPT-11 increased survival by more than 90%, whereas IV bevacizumab plus CPT-11 increased survival by 40%. Furthermore, CED bevacizumab-treated tissues exhibited decreased MVD compared with that of IV-treated tissues. In additional studies, the infiltration of macrophages and dendritic cells into CED-treated animals were increased compared with those in IV-treated animals, suggesting a highly active inflammatory response taking place in CED-treated mice.
The administration of bevacizumab via CED increases survival over that of treatment with IV bevacizumab. Thus, CED of bevacizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy can be an effective protocol for treating gliomas.