The objective of this study was to evaluate the ophthalmological outcome, nonvisual morbidity, and surgical complications after tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) removal using a superior interhemispheric approach.
In the last decade, 20 consecutive patients with TSM underwent operations using the superior interhemispheric approach. Visual acuity, visual field, and ocular fundus examination were assessed both preoperatively and 6-months postoperatively. Nonvisual morbidity was determined at an early postoperative period and at 6 months based on assessment of the Karnofsky Performance Scale score, leakage of CSF, endocrinological status, and olfactory function, which was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The potential brain injury related to the approach was assessed by MRI at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed yearly to detect a recurrence. The mean follow up was 56.3 ± 34 months.
The primary presenting symptom for diagnosis of TSM in 20 patients (female:male ratio of 6.6:1, mean age 59.1 ± 11.1 years) was visual disturbance in 12 patients (60%), headache in 4 (20%), cognitive alteration in 1 (5%), epilepsy in 2 (10%), and accidental in 1 (5%). In a total of 40 eyes, 17 eyes in 11 patients presented with preoperative deterioration of visual acuity. Postoperatively, the visual acuity improved in 13 eyes in 8 patients (72.8%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes in 2 patients (18.2%) and deteriorated in 1 patient (9%). The nonvisual morbidity included olfactory deterioration in 7 patients (35%), and panhypopituitarism in 1 patient (5%). No patients experienced a CSF leak. The impact of olfactory deterioration on the quality of life, as estimated by a VAS score (range 0–10), was a mean of 5.7 ± 2.2 (95% CI 4.1–7.3). On the follow-up MRI, no additional lesions or recurrences were observed on the medial aspect of the frontal lobe along the surgical corridor.
The superior interhemispheric approach appears to be effective in resolving the problem of visual deterioration due to a TSM, without inducing surgical injury on the brain surface along the surgical corridor. Olfactory deterioration remained the challenging predominant nonvisual morbidity using this approach.