Soumya Mukherjee, Gnanamurthy Sivakumar, John R. Goodden, Atul K. Tyagi, and Paul D. Chumas
The purpose of this study was to assess leukocytosis and its prognostic value in pediatric isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Two hundred one children with isolated TBI admitted to the authors’ institution between June 2006 and June 2018 were prospectively followed and their data retrospectively analyzed. Initial blood leukocyte count (i.e., white cell count [WCC]), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, CT scans, duration of hospital stay, and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPCS) scores were analyzed.
The mean age was 4.2 years (range 0.2–16 years). Seventy-four, 70, and 57 patients had severe (GCS score 3–8), moderate (GCS score 9–13), and mild (GCS score 14–15) TBI, respectively, with associated WCC of 20, 15.9, and 10.7 × 109/L and neutrophil counts of 15.6, 11.3, and 6.1 × 109/L, respectively (p < 0.01). Higher WCC and neutrophil counts were demonstrated in patients with increased intracranial mass effect on CT, longer hospital stay, and worse 6-month PCPCS score (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression revealed a cutoff leukocyte count of 16.1 × 109/L, neutrophil count of 11.9 × 109/L, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of 5.2, above which length of hospital stay and PCPCS scores were less favorable. Furthermore, NLR was the second most important independent risk factor for a poor outcome (after GCS score). The IMPACT (International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI) adult TBI prediction model applied to this pediatric cohort demonstrated increased accuracy when WCC was incorporated as a risk factor.
In the largest and first prospective study of isolated pediatric head injury to date, the authors have demonstrated that WCC > 16.1 × 109/L, neutrophil count > 11.9 × 109/L and NLR > 5.2 each have predictive value for lengthy hospital stay and poor PCPCS scores, and NLR is an independent risk factor for poor outcome. Incorporating the initial leukocyte count into TBI prediction models may improve prognostication.
Soumya Mukherjee, Arun Chandran, Anil Gopinathan, Mani Putharan, Tony Goddard, Paul R. Eldridge, Tufail Patankar, and Hans-Christean Nahser
The goal of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of PulseRider, a novel endovascular stent, in the treatment of intracranial bifurcation aneurysms with wide necks. The authors present the initial results of the first 10 cases in which the PulseRider device was used.
Patients whose aneurysms were intended to be treated with the PulseRider device at 2 institutions in the United Kingdom were identified prospectively. Patient demographics, procedural details, immediate neurological and clinical status, and immediate angiographic outcomes and 6-month clinical and imaging follow-up were recorded prospectively.
At the end of the procedure, all 10 patients showed complete aneurysm occlusion (Raymond Class 1). There were no significant intraprocedural complications except for an occurrence of thromboembolism without clinical sequelae. There was no occurrence of aneurysm rupture or vessel dissection. At 6-month follow-up, 7 and 3 patients had modified Rankin Scale scores of 0 and 1, respectively. All 10 patients had stable aneurysm occlusion (Raymond Class 1) and daughter vessel intraluminal patency on 6-month follow-up catheter angiography.
The authors' early experience with the PulseRider device demonstrates that it is a safe and effective adjunct in the treatment of bifurcation aneurysms with wide necks arising at the middle cerebral artery bifurcation, anterior cerebral artery, basilar apex, and carotid terminus. It works by providing a scaffold at the neck of the bifurcation aneurysm, enabling neck remodeling and coil support while maintaining parent vessel intraluminal patency. Early clinical and radiological follow-up showed good functional outcome and stable occlusion rates, respectively. Further data are needed to assess medium- and long-term outcomes with PulseRider.
Soumya Mukherjee, Bhaskar Thakur, Dolin Bhagawati, Dimpu Bhagawati, Samira Akmal, Vasileios Arzoglou, John Yeh, and Habib Ellamushi
The authors assess the utility of routine biopsy at vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fracture (VCF) as a tool in the early detection of malignancy in presumed benign VCF.
A prospective observational study was conducted on a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing vertebroplasty over a 5-year period between April 2006 and March 2011 at the Royal London Hospital. Polymethylmethacrylate cement injection was used in every procedure. Intraoperative vertebral body biopsy was performed routinely at every level of VCF. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, analgesic usage, and complications were recorded preoperatively and at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively.
A total of 202 levels were augmented in 147 patients. The most common levels augmented were T-12 (17%), L-1 (18%), and L-4 (10%). Analysis of 184 routine vertebral biopsies in 135 patients revealed that in 86 patients with presumed osteoporosis and no prior cancer diagnosis, 4 (4.7%) had a malignant VCF. In 20 known cancer patients presumed to be in remission, 2 (10%) had a malignant VCF. Routine vertebral biopsy returned an overall cancer diagnosis rate of 5.5% (6 of 109) when combining the 2 groups (patients with no prior history of cancer or cancer thought to be in remission). In these 6 patients, history, examination, laboratory tests, and preprocedure imaging all failed to suggest malignancy diagnosed at routine biopsy. Significant reductions in pain VAS and ODI scores were evident at Day 1 and were sustained at up to 1 year postoperatively (p < 0.001). They were not dependent on the level of fracture (T3–10, T11–L2, or L3–S1) (p > 0.05), number of levels treated (single level, 2 levels, or > 2 levels) (p > 0.05), or etiology of VCF (p > 0.05). The complication rate was 6% (9 of 147). There were 5 deaths, none of which were directly related to surgery.
Routine vertebral biopsy performed at vertebroplasty may demonstrate cancer-related VCFs in unsuspected patients with no previous cancer diagnosis or active malignancy in patients previously thought to be in remission. This early diagnosis of cancer or relapsed disease will play an important role in expediting patients' subsequent cancer management. In cases of multiple-level VCF, the authors advocate biopsy at each level to maximize the diagnostic yield from the specimens and to avoid missing a malignancy at a single level.