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Claire Karekezi, Nqobile Thango, Salamat Ahuoiza Aliu-Ibrahim, Hajar Bechri, Espérance Maman You Broalet, Mouna Bougrine, Jebet Beverly Cheserem, Maguette Mbaye, Zarina Ali Shabhay, Nabila Tighilt, Souad Bakhti, and Najia El Abbadi

The number of women in the medical field has increased in Africa over the last few decades, yet the underrepresentation of women within neurosurgery has been a recurrent theme. Of all surgical disciplines, neurosurgery is among the least equitable, and the rate of increase in female surgeons lags behind other surgical disciplines such as general surgery. This historical review provides an overview of the history of women in neurosurgery and their current status on the African continent. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first article to provide such an overview.

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Eylem Ocal, Eliana E. Kim, Milagros Niquen-Jimenez, Gleice Salibe de Oliveira, Souad Bakhti, Suchanda Bhattacharjee, Giselle Coelho, Wirginia Maixner, Martina Messing-Jünger, Nabila Taghlit, and Nelci Zanon

Pediatric neurosurgery is an ever-evolving field, and at the heart of it are talented and hardworking neurosurgeons who harness technology and research to enhance the standard of neurosurgical care for children. Recent studies have found that female neurosurgeons tend to choose a career focused on pediatric neurosurgery more than other subspecialties. However, the achievements and contributions of women in pediatric neurosurgery are not well known. To address this, an international working group of pediatric neurosurgeons was established from the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Women in Neurosurgery (WINS) group and Pediatric Neurosurgery Committee. The working group reviewed the current literature and collected information through personal communications with the global WINS network. Despite the increasing number of women entering neurosurgical training, the number of female pediatric neurosurgeons is still a mere handful worldwide. In this article, the authors summarize the current status of female pediatric neurosurgeons across the globe, highlighting their achievements as well as the gender bias and challenges that they face at every level of progression of their career. A better organized pediatric neurosurgery workforce, with more female representation and mentorship, would encourage future generations of diverse genders toward a career in this field.