The authors present the first case of spontaneous radiographic resolution and subsequent redemonstration of Gd enhancement of an untreated glioblastoma. They also review the literature on MR imaging enhancement patterns of high-grade gliomas and speculate that this phenomenon could be attributed to the dynamic biology of glioblastomas but could also represent pseudoregression following successful control of seizure activity. A 57-year-old woman presented with left-sided paresthesias and numbness. Initial Gd-enhanced MR images exhibited T2 and FLAIR signal changes in the right insular region without mass effect or contrast enhancement. Electroencephalography revealed intermittent sharp wave activity in this area. Antiepileptic medication was started, and the patient's symptoms resolved. Follow-up MR imaging 6 weeks later revealed enlargement of the lesion and contrast enhancement in the superior temporal gyrus. Consequently, the patient was scheduled for a brain biopsy. However, surgical planning MR images obtained on the day of surgery 4 weeks later showed that the enhancement had spontaneously resolved, and so the operation was cancelled. Repeat MR imaging performed 2 weeks later as a result of increased seizure frequency redemonstrated contrast enhancement. The patient then underwent a craniotomy, and final histopathology was consistent with glioblastoma.
Ippei Takagi, Sophia F. Shakur, Rimas V. Lukas and Theodore W. Eller
Sophia F. Shakur, Matthew J. McGirt, Michael W. Johnson, Peter C. Burger, Edward Ahn, Benjamin S. Carson and George I. Jallo
Angiocentric glioma was recently recognized as a distinct clinicopathological entity in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. The authors present the first 3 pediatric cases of angiocentric glioma encountered at their institution and review the literature of reported cases to elucidate the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric patients with this novel tumor.
The children in the 3 cases of angiocentric glioma were 10, 10, and 13 years old. Two presented with intractable seizures and 1 with worsening headache and several months of decreasing visual acuity. Twenty-five cases, including the 3 first described in the present paper, were culled from the literature.
In all 3 cases, MR imaging demonstrated a superficial, nonenhancing, T2-hyperintense lesion in the left temporal lobe. Histologically, the tumors were composed of monomorphous cells with a strikingly perivascular orientation that were variably reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen. Surgical treatment resulted in gross-total resection in all 3 cases. By 24, 9, and 6 months after surgery, all 3 patients remained seizure free without focal neurological deficits.
Among 25 cases of angiocentric glioma, seizure was the most common symptom at presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated supratentorial, nonenhancing, T1-hypointense, T2-hyperintense lesions. Gross-total resection of this lesion yields excellent results.
Sophia F. Shakur, Ali Alaraj, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Muhammad Osama and Fady T. Charbel
The pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is hypothesized to be hemodynamic. For the first time, the authors quantify the hemodynamic characteristics associated with aneurysm formation in patients with ICA occlusion.
Records of patients with unilateral ICA stenosis or occlusion ≥ 90% who underwent hemodynamic assessment before treatment using quantitative MR angiography were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of aneurysms. The hemodynamic parameters of flow volume rate, flow velocity, and wall shear stress (WSS) were measured in each vessel supplying collateral flow—bilateral A1 segments and bilateral posterior communicating arteries—and then compared between the groups.
A total of 36 patients were included (8 with and 28 without aneurysms). The mean flow (72.3 vs 48.9 ml/min, p = 0.10), flow velocity (21.1 vs 12.7 cm/sec, p = 0.006), and WSS (22.0 vs 12.3 dynes/cm2, p = 0.003) were higher in the A1 segment contralateral to the side of the patent ICA in patients with versus without aneurysms. All de novo or growing aneurysms in our cohort were located on the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) or P1 segment.
Flow velocity and WSS are significantly higher across the ACoA in patients who harbor an aneurysm, and de novo or growing aneurysms are often located on collateral vessels. Thus, robust primary collaterals after ICA occlusion may be a contributing factor in cerebral aneurysm formation.
Daniel M. Sciubba, Rory J. Petteys, Sophia F. Shakur, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Edward F. McCarthy, Michael T. Collins, Matthew J. McGirt, Patrick C. Hsieh, Clarke S. Nelson and Jean-Paul Wolinsky
En bloc spondylectomy represents a radical resection of a spinal segment most often reserved for patients presenting with a primary extradural spine tumor or a solitary metastasis in the setting of an indolent, well-controlled systemic malignancy. The authors report a case in which en bloc spondylectomy was conducted to control a metabolically active spine tumor. A 56-year-old woman, who suffered from severe tumor-induced osteomalacia, was found to have a fibroblast growth factor-23–secreting phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor in the T-8 vertebral body. En bloc resection was conducted, leading to resolution of her tumor-induced osteomalacia. This case suggests that radical spondylectomy may be beneficial in the management of metabolically or endocrinologically active tumors of the spine.