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Charles L. Francoeur, David Roh, J. Michael Schmidt, Stephan A. Mayer, M. Cristina Falo, Sachin Agarwal, E. Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen, Mitchell S. V. Elkind and Soojin Park

OBJECTIVE

Rebleeding remains a frequent and catastrophic event leading to poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Reduced platelet function after the initial bleed is associated with higher risk of early rebleeding. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a well-known hemostatic agent, and recent guidelines already suggest its use in individuals exposed to antiplatelet drugs. The authors hypothesized that DDAVP administration in patients with SAH at admission would be associated with lower risks of rebleeding.

METHODS

The authors performed an observational cohort study of patients enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcome Project between August 1996 and July 2015. The authors compared the rate of rebleeding between patients who were and those who were not treated with DDAVP. After adjustment for known predictors, logistic regression was used to measure the association between treatment with DDAVP and risks of rebleeding.

RESULTS

Among 1639 patients with SAH, 12% were treated with DDAVP. The main indication for treatment was suspected exposure to an antiplatelet agent. The overall incidence of rebleeding was 9% (1% among patients treated with DDAVP compared with 8% among those not treated). After adjustment for antiplatelet use and known predictors, treatment with DDAVP was associated with a 45% reduction in the risks of rebleeding (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.97). DDAVP was associated with a higher incidence of hyponatremia but not with thrombotic events or delayed cerebral ischemia.

CONCLUSIONS

Treatment with DDAVP was associated with a lower risk of rebleeding among patients with SAH. These findings support further study of DDAVP as first-line therapy for medical hemostasis in patients with SAH.

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Fawaz Al-Mufti, David Roh, Shouri Lahiri, Emma Meyers, Jens Witsch, Hans-Peter Frey, Neha Dangayach, Cristina Falo, Stephan A. Mayer, Sachin Agarwal, Soojin Park, Philip M. Meyers, E. Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen and J. Michael Schmidt

OBJECTIVE

The clinical significance of cerebral ultra-early angiographic vasospasm (UEAV), defined as cerebral arterial narrowing within the first 48 hours of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), remains poorly characterized. The authors sought to determine its frequency, predictors, and impact on functional outcome.

METHODS

The authors prospectively studied UEAV in a cohort of 1286 consecutively admitted patients with aSAH between August 1996 and June 2013. Admission clinical, radiographic, and acute clinical course information was documented during patient hospitalization. Functional outcome was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were generated to assess predictors of UEAV and its relationship to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and outcome. Multiple imputation methods were used to address data lost to follow-up.

RESULTS

The cohort incidence rate of UEAV was 4.6%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, sentinel bleed, and poor admission clinical grade were significantly associated with UEAV. Patients with UEAV had a 2-fold increased risk of DCI (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.9, p = 0.002) and cerebral infarction (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.9, p = 0.04), after adjusting for known predictors. Excluding patients who experienced sentinel bleeding did not change this effect. Patients with UEAV also had a significantly higher hazard for DCI in a multivariable model. UEAV was not found to be significantly associated with poor functional outcome (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4–1.6, p = 0.5).

CONCLUSIONS

UEAV may be less frequent than has been reported previously. Patients who exhibit UEAV are at higher risk for refractory DCI that results in cerebral infarction. These patients may benefit from earlier monitoring for signs of DCI and more aggressive treatment. Further study is needed to determine the long-term functional significance of UEAV.