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Soliman Oushy, Stefan H. Sillau, Douglas E. Ney, Denise M. Damek, A. Samy Youssef, Kevin O. Lillehei and D. Ryan Ormond

OBJECTIVE

Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in seizure-naïve brain tumor patients remains a topic of debate. This study aimed to characterize a subset of patients at highest risk for new-onset perioperative seizures (i.e., intraoperative and postoperative seizures occurring within 30 days of surgery) who may benefit from prophylactic AEDs.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study of all adults who had undergone tumor resection or biopsy at the authors’ institution between January 1, 2004, and June 31, 2015. All patients with a history of preoperative seizures, posterior fossa tumors, pituitary tumors, and parasellar tumors were excluded. A control group was matched to the seizure patients according to age (± 0 years). Demographic data, clinical status, operative data, and postoperative course data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 1693 patients who underwent tumor resection or biopsy, 549 (32.4%) had never had a preoperative seizure. Of these 549 patients, 25 (4.6%) suffered a perioperative seizure (Group 1). A total of 524 patients (95.4%) who remained seizure free were matched to Group 1 according to age (± 0 years), resulting in 132 control patients (Group 2), at an approximate ratio of 1:5. There were no differences between the patient groups in terms of age, sex, race, relationship status, and neurological deficits on presentation. Histological subtype (infiltrating glioma vs meningioma vs other, p = 0.041), intradural tumor location (p < 0.001), intraoperative cortical stimulation (p = 0.004), and extent of resection (less than gross total, p = 0.002) were associated with the occurrence of perioperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

While most seizure-naïve brain tumor patients do not benefit from perioperative seizure prophylaxis, such treatment should be considered in high-risk patients with supratentorial intradural tumors, in patients undergoing intraoperative cortical stimulation, and in patients in whom subtotal resection is likely.

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Soliman Oushy, Jonathon J. Parker, Kristen Campbell, Claire Palmer, Corbett Wilkinson, Nicholas V. Stence, Michael H. Handler and David M. Mirsky

OBJECTIVE

Placement of a cerebrospinal fluid diversion device (i.e., shunt) is a routine pediatric neurosurgical procedure, often performed in the first weeks of life for treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. In the postoperative period, shunt placement may be complicated by subdural, catheter tract, parenchymal, and intraventricular hemorrhages. The authors observed a subset of infants and neonates who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPH) following shunt placement and sought to determine any predisposing perioperative variables.

METHODS

A retrospective review of the electronic medical record at a tertiary-care children’s hospital was performed for the period 1998–2015. Inclusion criteria consisted of shunt placement, age < 30 days, and available pre- and postoperative brain imaging. The following data were collected and analyzed for each case: ventricular size ratios, laboratory values, clinical presentation, shunt and valve type, and operative timing and approach.

RESULTS

A total of 121 neonates met the inclusion criteria for the study, and 11 patients (9.1%) had MIPH following shunt placement. The preoperative frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOR) was significantly higher in the patients with MIPH than in those without (0.65 vs 0.57, p < 0.001). The change in FOR (∆FOR) after shunt placement was significantly greater in the MIPH group (0.14 vs 0.08, p = 0.04). Among neonates who developed MIPH, aqueductal stenosis was the most common etiology (45%). The type of shunt valve was associated with incidence of MIPH (p < 0.001). Preoperative clinical parameters, including head circumference, bulging fontanelle, and coagulopathy, were not significantly associated with development of MIPH.

CONCLUSIONS

MIPH represents an underrecognized complication of neonatal shunted hydrocephalus. Markers of severity of ventriculomegaly (FOR) and ventricular response to CSF diversion (∆FOR) were significantly associated with occurrence of MIPH. Choice of shunt and etiology of hydrocephalus were also significantly associated with MIPH. After adjusting for corrected age, etiology of hydrocephalus, and shunt setting, the authors found that ∆FOR after shunting was still associated with MIPH. A prospective study of MIPH prevention strategies and assessment of possible implications for patient outcomes is needed.

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Maria Peris-Celda, Soliman Oushy, Avital Perry, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Richard S. Zimmerman, Fredric B. Meyer, Bruce E. Pollock and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

Geniculate neuralgia (GN) is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome attributable to nervus intermedius (NI) dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment can be challenging, due to the complex nature of ear sensory innervation, resulting in clinical overlap with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN).

METHODS

A retrospective review of a prospective neurosurgical database at our institution was performed, 2000–2017, with a corresponding systematic literature review. Pain outcomes were dichotomized as unfavorable for unchanged/worsened symptoms versus favorable if improved/resolved. Eight formalin-fixed brains were examined to describe NI at the brainstem.

RESULTS

Eleven patients were surgically treated for GN—9 primary, 2 reoperations. The median age was 48, 7 patients were female, and the median follow-up was 11 months (range 3–143). Seven had ≥ 2 probable cranial neuralgias. NI was sectioned in 9 and treated via microvascular decompression (MVD) in 2. Five patients underwent simultaneous treatment for TN (4 MVD; 1 rhizotomy) and 5 for GPN (3 MVD; 2 rhizotomy). Eleven reported symptomatic improvement (100%); 8 initially reported complete resolution (73%). Pain outcomes at last contact were favorable in 8 (73%)—all among the 9 primary operations (89% vs 0%, p = 0.054). Six prior series reported outcomes in 111 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

GN is rare, and diagnosis is confounded by symptomatic overlap with TN/GPN. Directed treatment of all possible neuralgias improved pain control in almost all primary operations. Repeat surgery seems a risk factor for an unfavorable outcome. NI is adherent to superomedial VIII at the brainstem; the intermediate/cisternal portion is optimal for visualization and sectioning.