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Soichi Oya and Joung H. Lee

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Soichi Oya, Burak Sade, and Joung H. Lee

Object

The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique used for removal of sphenoorbital meningiomas in the authors' practice and to review the operative outcome.

Methods

Review of the senior author's practice between 1994 and 2009 revealed 39 patients (mean age 48 years) eligible for this study. Clinical presentation, surgical technique, postoperative outcome, and follow-up data are presented. Surgical technique is detailed, with an emphasis on aggressive removal consisting of drilling of the hypertrophied sphenoid bone, orbital wall, and anterior clinoid process, followed by tumor removal and a wide resection of the involved dura. A simple dural closure without reconstruction of the orbital roof or the lateral wall of the orbit is also described.

Results

Gross-total resection was achieved in 15 cases (38.5%), near-total resection with small residual in the cavernous sinus or periorbita in 20 cases (51.3%), and subtotal resection in 4 cases (10.3%). Postoperative complications included trigeminal hypesthesia in 9 patients, oculomotor palsy in 3 patients, and seizure in 2 patients. Seven patients had recurrence within the mean follow-up period of 40.7 months. Preoperative visual deficits were present in 21 patients (53.8%). Of these, 14 (66.7%) experienced visual recovery to normal levels postoperatively. Statistical analyses revealed preoperative severe visual deficit and sphenoid bone hypertrophy as an independent risk factor and an independent favorable factor, respectively, for a favorable visual outcome. Proptosis was resolved (≤ 2 mm) in 73.5% of the authors' patients. No patient had postoperative enophthalmos.

Conclusions

In the authors' practice, surgery for sphenoorbital meningiomas consists of resection of the orbital/sphenoid intraosseous, intraorbital, and intradural tumor components. The authors believe that aggressive removal of the orbital/sphenoid intraosseous tumor is critical for a favorable visual outcome and tumor control. Furthermore, satisfactory cosmetic results can be achieved with simple reconstruction techniques as described.

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Burak Sade, Soichi Oya, and Joung H. Lee

Object

There are various schools of thought when it comes to dural reconstruction following meningioma surgery, which are largely based on the personal experience of the individual surgeons. The authors' aim in this study was to review different dural reconstruction techniques, with an emphasis on their experience with the synthetic onlay dural graft technique.

Methods

The medical records of 439 consecutive patients who were surgically treated for an intracranial meningioma over a period of 7 years, and for whom dural reconstruction was performed using the onlay dural graft DuraGen (Integra Neurosciences) were reviewed retrospectively. The most common tumor location was the convexity (27.6%), and 12% of the patients had undergone previous surgery. Complications related to the closure technique and/or closure material, such as CSF leakage from the incision, rhinorrhea, or infectious or chemical meningitis were reviewed.

Results

A CSF leak was encountered in 2 patients (0.4%), and 10 patients (2.3%) experienced graft-related complications in the form of chemical meningitis, cerebritis, and accumulation of extraaxial fluid. Infectious complications were seen in 4 patients (0.9%; bacterial meningitis, osteomyelitis, epidural abscess). None of the patients had pseudomeningocele that required a second intervention.

Conclusions

In the authors' experience, the incidence of CSF leakage following non-watertight reconstruction of the dura mater in meningioma surgery performed using dural onlay graft was 0.4%. Graft-related complications occurred in 2.3%. These figures compare favorably to the majority of the series in which watertight dural closure is described and emphasized.

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Soichi Oya, Masahiro Indo, Masabumi Nagashima, and Toru Matsui

Aneurysms at the distal portion of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) are very rare. Because of the deep location and a propensity for nonsaccular morphology, aneurysm trapping or endovascular occlusion of the parent artery are the usual treatment options, which are associated with varying risks of ischemic complications. The authors report on a 60-year-old woman who had a 3.5-mm unruptured aneurysm in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the SCA with a significant interval growth to 8 mm. Direct surgical intervention comprising trapping of the aneurysm through a subtemporal approach and intradural anterior petrosectomy combined with revascularization of the distal SCA using the superficial temporal artery (STA) was performed. This approach provided sufficient space for the bypass instruments to be introduced into the deep surgical field at a more favorable angle to enhance microscopic visualization of the anastomosis with minimal retraction of the temporal lobe. The patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. Preservation of the blood flow in the distal SCA should be attempted to minimize the risk of ischemic injury, particularly when the aneurysms arise in the anterior or lateral segment of the SCA. The authors demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the intradural anterior petrosectomy for STA-SCA bypass along with a relevant anatomical study.

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Han Soo Chang, Atsushi Nagai, Soichi Oya, and Toru Matsui

An arachnoid web is an abnormal formation of the arachnoid membrane in the spinal subarachnoid space that blocks CSF flow and causes syringomyelia. Although the precise mechanism of syrinx formation is unknown, dissection of the arachnoid web shrinks the syrinx and improves symptoms. Precisely determining the location of the arachnoid web is difficult preoperatively, however, because the fine structure generally cannot be visualized in usual MRI sequences.

In this report the authors describe 2 cases of arachnoid web in which the web was preoperatively identified using quantitative CSF flow analysis of MRI. By analyzing cardiac-gated phase-contrast cine-mode MRI in multiple axial planes, the authors precisely localized the obstruction of CSF flow on the dorsal side of the spinal cord in both patients. This technique also revealed a 1-way valve-like function of the arachnoid webs. Imaging led to the early diagnosis of myelopathy related to the derangement of CSF flow and allowed the authors to successfully excise the webs through limited surgical exposure.

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Roberto C. Heros

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Soichi Oya, Seon-Hwan Kim, Burak Sade, and Joung H. Lee

Object

Despite the increased detection of incidental or small meningiomas, the lesion's natural history is largely unknown.

Methods

One year or longer of follow-up was conducted in 244 patients with 273 meningiomas managed conservatively by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2008. Data were stratified according to age, sex, tumor location, symptoms, initial tumor diameter, calcification, MR imaging intensity, and edema. Linear tumor growth was defined as a 2-mm or larger increase in the maximum diameter in any direction of the tumor. Volumetric analysis (ImageJ version 1.43) was also conducted in 154 of 273 meningiomas for which complete radiological data were available in the form of DICOM files throughout the follow-up period. A volume increase greater than 8.2% was regarded as significant because the preliminary volumetry based on 20 randomly selected meningiomas showed that the average SD was 4.1%.

Results

Linear growth was observed in 120 tumors (44.0%) with a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Factors related to tumor growth were age of 60 or younger (p = 0.0004), absence of calcification (p = 0.027), MR imaging T2 signal hyperintensity (p = 0.021), and edema (p = 0.018). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that age 60 or younger (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.05–2.30, p = 0.026), initial tumor diameter greater than 25 mm (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.44–3.38, p = 0.0004), and the absence of calcification (HR 4.57, 95% CI 2.69–8.20, p < 0.0001) were factors associated with a short time to progression. Volumetric growth was seen in 74.0% of the cases. Factors associated with a higher annual growth rate were male sex (p = 0.0002), initial tumor diameter greater than 25 mm (p < 0.0001), MR imaging T2 signal hyperintensity (p = 0.0001), presence of symptoms (p = 0.037), and edema (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Although the authors could obtain variable results depending on the measurement method, the data demonstrate patients younger than 60 years of age and those with meningiomas characterized by hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR imaging, no calcification, diameter greater than 25 mm, and edema need to be observed more closely. Volumetry was more sensitive to detecting tumor growth than measuring the linear diameter.

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Masahiro Indo, Soichi Oya, Michihiro Tanaka, and Toru Matsui

Object

Surgery for aneurysms at the anterior wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA), which are also referred to as ICA anterior wall aneurysms, is often challenging. A treatment strategy needs to be determined according to the pathology of the aneurysm—namely, whether the aneurysm is a saccular aneurysm with firm neck walls that would tolerate clipping or coiling, a dissecting aneurysm, or a blood blister–like aneurysm. However, it is not always possible to properly evaluate the condition of the aneurysm before surgery solely based on angiographic findings.

Methods

The authors focused on the location of the ophthalmic artery (OA) in determining the pathology of ICA anterior wall aneurysms. Between January 2006 and December 2012, diagnostic cerebral angiography, for any reason, was performed on 1643 ICAs in 855 patients at Saitama Medical Center. The authors also investigated the relationship between the origin of the OA and the incidence of ICA anterior wall aneurysms. The pathogenesis was also evaluated for each aneurysm based on findings from both angiography and open surgery to identify any correlation between the location where the OA originated and the conditions of the aneurysm walls.

Results

Among 1643 ICAs, 31 arteries (1.89%) were accompanied by an anomalous origin of the OA, including 26 OAs originating from the C3 portion, 3 originating from the C4 portion, and 2 originating from the anterior cerebral artery. The incidence of an anomalous origin of the OA had no relationship to age, sex, or side. Internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysms were observed in 16 (0.97%) of 1643 ICAs. Female patients had a significantly higher risk of having ICA anterior wall aneurysms (p = 0.026). The risk of ICA anterior wall aneurysm formation was approximately 50 times higher in patients with an anomalous origin of the OA (25.8% [8 of 31]) than in those with a normal OA (0.5% [8 of 1612], p < 0.0001). Based on angiographic classifications, saccular aneurysms were significantly more common in patients with an anomalous origin of the OA than in those with a normal OA (p = 0.041). Ten of 16 patients with ICA anterior wall aneurysms underwent craniotomies. Based on the intraoperative findings, all 6 aneurysms with normal OAs were dissecting or blood blister–like aneurysms, not saccular aneurysms.

Conclusions

There was a close relationship between the location of the OA origin and the predisposition to ICA anterior wall aneurysms. Developmental failure of the OA and subsequent weakness of the vessel wall might account for this phenomenon, as previously reported regarding other aneurysms related to the anomalous development of parent arteries. The data also appear to indicate that ICA anterior wall aneurysms in patients with an anomalous origin of the OA tend to be saccular aneurysms with normal neck walls. These findings provide critical information in determining therapeutic strategies for ICA anterior wall aneurysms.