Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sofia Kakaizada x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Andrew S. Little, Vera Vigo, Arnau Benet, Sofia Kakaizada, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The transpterygoid extension of the endoscopic endonasal approach provides exposure of the petrous apex, Meckel’s cave, paraclival area, and the infratemporal fossa. Safe and efficient localization of the lacerum segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a crucial part of such exposure. The aim of this study is to introduce a novel landmark for localization of the lacerum ICA.

METHODS

Ten cadaveric heads were prepared for transnasal endoscopic dissection. The floor of the sphenoid sinus was drilled to expose an extension of the pharyngobasilar fascia between the sphenoid floor and the pterygoid process (the pterygoclival ligament). Several features of the pterygoclival ligament were assessed. In addition, 31 dry skulls were studied to assess features of the bony groove harboring the pterygoclival ligament.

RESULTS

The pterygoclival ligament was identified bilaterally during drilling of the sphenoid floor in all specimens. The ligament started a few millimeters posterior to the posterior end of the vomer alae and invariably extended posterolaterally and superiorly to blend into the fibrous tissue around the lacerum ICA. The mean length of the ligament was 10.5 ± 1.7 mm. The mean distance between the anterior end of the ligament and midline was 5.2 ± 1.2 mm. The mean distance between the posterior end of the ligament and midline was 12.3 ± 1.4 mm. The bony pterygoclival groove was identified at the confluence of the vomer, pterygoid process of the sphenoid, and basilar part of the occipital bone, running from posterolateral to anteromedial. The mean length of the groove was 7.7 ± 1.8 mm. Its posterolateral end faced the anteromedial aspect of the foramen lacerum medial to the posterior end of the vidian canal. A clinical case illustration is also provided.

CONCLUSIONS

The pterygoclival ligament is a consistent landmark for localization of the lacerum ICA. It may be used as an adjunct or alternative to the vidian nerve to localize the ICA during endoscopic endonasal surgery.

Full access

Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Arnau Benet, Vera Vigo, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Sonia Yousef, Pooneh Mokhtari, Flavia Dones, Sofia Kakaizada, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has shown promising results in treatment of midline skull base lesions. Several case reports exist on the utilization of the EEA for treatment of aneurysms. However, a comparison of this approach with the classic transcranial orbitozygomatic approach to the basilar apex (BAX) region is missing.

The present study summarizes the results of a series of cadaveric surgical simulations for assessment of the EEA to the BAX region for aneurysm clipping and its comparison with the transcranial orbitozygomatic approach as one of the most common approaches used to treat BAX aneurysms.

METHODS

Fifteen cadaveric specimens underwent bilateral orbitozygomatic craniotomies as well as an EEA (first without a pituitary transposition [PT] and then with a PT) to expose the BAX. The following variables were measured, recorded, and compared between the orbitozygomatic approach and the EEA: 1) number of perforating arteries counted on bilateral posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs); 2) exposure and clipping lengths of the PCAs, superior cerebellar arteries (SCAs), and proximal basilar artery; and 3) surgical area of exposure in the BAX region.

RESULTS

Except for the proximal basilar artery exposure and clipping, the orbitozygomatic approach provided statistically significantly greater values for vascular exposure and control in the BAX region (i.e., exposure and clipping of ipsilateral and contralateral SCAs and PCAs). The EEA with PT was significantly better in exposing and clipping bilateral PCAs compared to EEA without a PT, but not in terms of other measured variables. The surgical area of exposure and PCA perforator counts were not significantly different between the 3 approaches. The EEA provided better exposure and control if the BAX was located ≥ 4 mm inferior to the dorsum sellae.

CONCLUSIONS

For BAX aneurysms located in the retrosellar area, PT is usually required to obtain improved exposure and control for the bilateral PCAs. However, the transcranial approach is generally superior to both endoscopic approaches for accessing the BAX region. Considering the superior exposure of the proximal basilar artery obtained with the EEA, it could be a viable option when surgical treatment is considered for a low-lying BAX or mid–basilar trunk aneurysms (≥ 4 mm inferior to dorsum sellae).

Restricted access

Alexander A. Aabedi, Sofia Kakaizada, Jacob S. Young, EunSeon Ahn, Daniel H. Weissman, Mitchel S. Berger, David Brang, and Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper

OBJECTIVE

Intraoperative tasks for awake language mapping are typically selected based on the language tracts that will likely be encountered during tumor resection. However, diminished attention and arousal secondary to perioperative sedatives may reduce a task’s usefulness for identifying eloquent cortex. For instance, accuracy in performing select language tasks may be high preoperatively but decline in the operating room. In the present study, the authors sought to identify language tasks that can be performed with high accuracy in both situational contexts so the neurosurgical team can be confident that speech errors committed during awake language mapping result from direct cortical stimulation to eloquent cortex, rather than from poor performance in general.

METHODS

We administered five language tasks to 44 patients: picture naming (PN), text reading (TR), auditory object naming (AN), repetition of 4-syllable words (4SYL), and production of syntactically intact sentences (SYNTAX). Performance was assessed using the 4-point scale of the quick aphasia battery 24 hours preoperatively and intraoperatively. We next determined whether or not accuracy on each task was higher preoperatively than intraoperatively. We also determined whether 1) intraoperative accuracy on a given task predicted intraoperative performance on the other tasks and 2) low preoperative accuracy on a task predicted a decrease in accuracy intraoperatively.

RESULTS

Relative to preoperative accuracy, intraoperative accuracy declined on PN (3.90 vs 3.82, p = 0.0001), 4SYL (3.96 vs 3.91, p = 0.0006), and SYNTAX (3.85 vs 3.67, p = 0.0001) but not on TR (3.96 vs 3.94, p = 0.13) or AN (3.70 vs 3.58, p = 0.058). Intraoperative accuracy on PN and AN independently predicted intraoperative accuracy on the remaining language tasks (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Finally, low preoperative accuracy on SYNTAX predicted a decrease in accuracy on this task intraoperatively (R = 0.36, p = 0.00002).

CONCLUSIONS

While TR lacks sensitivity in identifying language deficits at baseline, accuracy on TR is stable across testing settings. Baseline accuracy on the other four of our five language tasks was not predictive of intraoperative performance, signifying the need to repeat language tests prior to stimulation mapping to confirm reliability.

Restricted access

Alexander A. Aabedi, EunSeon Ahn, Sofia Kakaizada, Claudia Valdivia, Jacob S. Young, Heather Hervey-Jumper, Eric Zhang, Oren Sagher, Daniel H. Weissman, David Brang, and Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe tumor resection in language areas of the brain relies on a patient’s ability to perform intraoperative language tasks. Assessing the performance of these tasks during awake craniotomies allows the neurosurgeon to identify and preserve brain regions that are critical for language processing. However, receiving sedation and analgesia just prior to experiencing an awake craniotomy may reduce a patient’s wakefulness, leading to transient language and/or cognitive impairments that do not completely subside before language testing begins. At present, the degree to which wakefulness influences intraoperative language task performance is unclear. Therefore, the authors sought to determine whether any of 5 brief measures of wakefulness predicts such performance during awake craniotomies for glioma resection.

METHODS

The authors recruited 21 patients with dominant hemisphere low- and high-grade gliomas. Each patient performed baseline wakefulness measures in addition to picture-naming and text-reading language tasks 24 hours before undergoing an awake craniotomy. The patients performed these same tasks again in the operating room following the cessation of anesthesia medications. The authors then conducted statistical analyses to investigate potential relationships between wakefulness measures and language task performance.

RESULTS

Relative to baseline, performance on 3 of the 4 objective wakefulness measures (rapid counting, button pressing, and vigilance) declined in the operating room. Moreover, these declines appeared in the complete absence of self-reported changes in arousal. Performance on language tasks similarly declined in the intraoperative setting, with patients experiencing greater declines in picture naming than in text reading. Finally, performance declines on rapid counting and vigilance wakefulness tasks predicted performance declines on the picture-naming task.

CONCLUSIONS

Current subjective methods for assessing wakefulness during awake craniotomies may be insufficient. The administration of objective measures of wakefulness just prior to language task administration may help to ensure that patients are ready for testing. It may also allow neurosurgeons to identify patients who are at risk for poor intraoperative performance.

Free access

Anthony T. Lee, Claire Faltermeier, Ramin A. Morshed, Jacob S. Young, Sofia Kakaizada, Claudia Valdivia, Anne M. Findlay, Phiroz E. Tarapore, Srikantan S. Nagarajan, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Gliomas are intrinsic brain tumors with the hallmark of diffuse white matter infiltration, resulting in short- and long-range network dysfunction. Preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) can assist in maximizing the extent of resection while minimizing morbidity. While MEG has been validated in motor mapping, its role in speech mapping remains less well studied. The authors assessed how the resection of intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES)–negative, high functional connectivity (HFC) network sites, as identified by MEG, impacts language performance.

METHODS

Resting-state, whole-brain MEG recordings were obtained from 26 patients who underwent perioperative language evaluation and glioma resection that was guided by awake language and IES mapping. The functional connectivity of an individual voxel was determined by the imaginary coherence between the index voxel and the rest of the brain, referenced to its contralesional pair. The percentage of resected HFC voxels was correlated with postoperative language outcomes in tasks of increasing complexity: text reading, 4-syllable repetition, picture naming, syntax (SYN), and auditory stimulus naming (AN).

RESULTS

Overall, 70% of patients (14/20) in whom any HFC tissue was resected developed an early postoperative language deficit (mean 2.3 days, range 1–8 days), compared to 33% of patients (2/6) in whom no HFC tissue was resected (p = 0.16). When bifurcated by the amount of HFC tissue that was resected, 100% of patients (3/3) with an HFC resection > 25% displayed deficits in AN, compared to 30% of patients (6/20) with an HFC resection < 25% (p = 0.04). Furthermore, there was a linear correlation between the severity of AN and SYN decline with percentage of HFC sites resected (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). By 2.2 months postoperatively (range 1–6 months), the correlation between HFC resection and both AN and SYN decline had resolved (p = 0.94 and p = 1.00, respectively) in all patients (9/9) except two who experienced early postoperative tumor progression or stroke involving inferior frontooccipital fasciculus.

CONCLUSIONS

Imaginary coherence measures of functional connectivity using MEG are able to identify HFC network sites within and around low- and high-grade gliomas. Removal of IES-negative HFC sites results in early transient postoperative decline in AN and SYN, which resolved by 3 months in all patients without stroke or early tumor progression. Measures of functional connectivity may therefore be a useful means of counseling patients about postoperative risk and assist with preoperative surgical planning.