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So-Hyang Im, Moon Hee Han, Bae Ju Kwon, Jung Yong Ahn, Cheolkyu Jung, Sung-Hye Park, Chang Wan Oh, and Dae Hee Han


Considerable confusion exists in the literature regarding the classification of cerebrovascular malformations and their clinical significance. One example is provided by the atypical developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with arteriovenous shunt, because it remains controversial whether these lesions should be classified as DVAs or as atypical cases of other subtypes of cerebrovascular malformations. The purpose of this study was to clarify the classification of these challenging vascular lesions in an effort to suggest an appropriate diagnosis and management strategy.


The authors present a series of 15 patients with intracranial vascular malformations that were angiographically classified as atypical DVAs with arteriovenous shunts. This type of vascular malformation shows a fine arterial blush without a distinct nidus and early filling of dilated medullary veins that drain these arterial components during the arterial phase on angiography. Those prominent medullary veins converge toward an enlarged main draining vein, which together form the caput medusae appearance of a typical DVA.


Based on clinical, angiographic, surgical, and histological findings, the authors propose classifying these vascular malformations as a subtype of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), rather than as a variant of DVA or as a combined vascular malformation.


Correct recognition of this AVM subtype is required for its proper management, and its clinical behavior appears to follow that of a typical AVM. Gamma Knife radiosurgery appears to be a good alternative to resection, although long-term follow-up results require verification.

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So Hee Park, Myung Ji Kim, Hyun Ho Jung, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Seok Choi, Itay Rachmilevitch, Eyal Zadicario, and Jin Woo Chang


Glioblastoma (GBM) remains fatal due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which interferes with the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of repeated disruption of the BBB (BBBD) with MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) in patients with GBM during standard adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy.


This study was a prospective, single-center, single-arm study. BBBD with MRgFUS was performed adjacent to the tumor resection margin on the 1st or 2nd day of the adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy at the same targets for 6 cycles. T2*-weighted/gradient echo (GRE) MRI was performed immediately after every sonication trial, and comprehensive MRI was performed at the completion of all sonication sessions. Radiological, laboratory, and clinical evaluations were performed 2 days before each planned BBBD.


From September 2018, 6 patients underwent 145 BBBD trials at various locations in the brain. The authors observed gadolinium-enhancing spots at the site of BBBD on T1-weighted MRI in 131 trials (90.3%) and 93 trials (64.1%) showed similar spots on T2*-weighted/GRE MRI. When the 2 sequences were combined, BBBD was observed in 134 targets (92.4%). The spots disappeared on follow-up MRI. There were no imaging changes related to BBBD and no clinical adverse effects during the 6 cycles.


This study is the first in which repetitive MRgFUS was performed at the same targets with a standard chemotherapy protocol for malignant brain tumor. BBBD with MRgFUS was performed accurately, repeatedly, and safely. Although a longer follow-up period is needed, this study allows for the possibility of other therapeutic agents that previously could not be used due to the BBB.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03712293 (

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Myung Ji Kim, So Hee Park, Kyung Won Chang, Yuhee Kim, Jing Gao, Maya Kovalevsky, Itay Rachmilevitch, Eyal Zadicario, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, and Jin Woo Chang


Magnetic resonance imaging–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) provides real-time monitoring of patients to assess tremor control and document any adverse effects. MRgFUS of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus has become an effective treatment option for medically intractable essential tremor (ET). The aim of this study was to analyze the correlations of clinical and technical parameters with 12-month outcomes after unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET to help guide future clinical treatments.


From October 2013 to January 2019, data on unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy from the original pivotal study and continued-access studies from three different geographic regions were collected. Authors of the present study retrospectively reviewed those data and evaluated the efficacy of the procedure on the basis of improvement in the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) subscore at 1 year posttreatment. Safety was based on the rates of moderate and severe thalamotomy-related adverse events. Treatment outcomes in relation to various patient- and sonication-related parameters were analyzed in a large cohort of patients with ET.


In total, 250 patients were included in the present analysis. Improvement was sustained throughout the 12-month follow-up period, and 184 (73.6%) of 250 patients had minimal or no disability due to tremor (CRST subscore < 10) at the 12-month follow-up. Younger age and higher focal temperature (Tmax) correlated with tremor improvement in the multivariate analysis (OR 0.948, p = 0.013; OR 1.188, p = 0.025; respectively). However, no single statistically significant factor correlated with Tmax in the multivariate analysis. The cutoff value of Tmax in predicting a CRST subscore < 10 was 55.8°C. Skull density ratio (SDR) was positively correlated with heating efficiency (β = 0.005, p < 0.001), but no significant relationship with tremor improvement was observed. In the low-temperature group, 1–3 repetitions to the right target with 52°C ≤ Tmax ≤ 54°C was sufficient to generate sustained tremor suppression within the investigated follow-up period. The high-temperature group had a higher rate of balance disturbances than the low-temperature group (p = 0.04).


The authors analyzed the data of 250 patients with the aim of improving practices for patient screening and determining treatment endpoints. These results may improve the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET.