Xinqiang Yao, Ruoting Ding, Junhao Liu, Siyuan Zhu, Jingshen Zhuang, Zhongyuan Liu, Hui Jiang, Dongbin Qu, Qingan Zhu and Jianting Chen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lumbar sacralization on the level of vertebral slip and disc degeneration in patients with L4 spondylolysis.
The authors analyzed data from 102 cases in which patients underwent surgical treatment for L4 spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis at their institution between March 2007 and September 2016. Lumbar sacralization was characterized by the presence of pseudarthrosis and/or bony fusion between the L5 transverse process and sacrum, and the type of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) was evaluated with the Castellvi classification. The amount of vertebral slippage was measured using the Taillard technique and Meyerding grade. Degeneration of the L4–5 segment was quantified using the Pfirrmann and Modic classifications. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of sacralization, and the amount of vertebral slip and degeneration of the L4–5 segment was compared between groups.
Lumbar sacralization was present in 37 (36%) of 102 patients with L4 spondylolysis. The LSTV was type IIa in 10 cases, type IIb in 7, type IIIa in 2, and type IIIb in 18. The levels of vertebral slip and disc degeneration in the group of patients with sacralization were significantly greater than in the group without sacralization. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to Modic changes.
The increased stability between a sacralized L5 and the sacrum may predispose the L4–5 segment to greater instability and disc degeneration in patients with L4 spondylolysis.
Xiaohui Ren, Song Lin, Zhongcheng Wang, Lin Luo, Zhongli Jiang, Dali Sui, Zhiyong Bi, Yong Cui, Wenqing Jia, Yan Zhang, Lanbing Yu and Siyuan Chen
Most intracranial epidermoid cysts typically present with long T1 and T2 signals on MR images. Other epidermoid cysts with atypical MR images are often misdiagnosed as other diseases. In this study the authors aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of atypical epidermoid cysts.
Among 428 cases of intracranial epidermoid cysts that were surgically treated between 2002 and 2008 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, cases with an atypical MR imaging appearance were chosen for analysis. Clinical and pathological parameters were recorded and compared in patients with lesions demonstrating typical and atypical MR appearance.
An atypical epidermoid cyst accounts for 5.6% of the whole series. Radiologically, 58.3% of atypical epidermoids were misdiagnosed as other diseases. Compared with a typical epidermoid cyst, atypical epidermoid lesions were significantly larger (p = 0.016, chi-square test). Pathologically, hemorrhage was found in 21 patients with atypical epidermoid cyst and is significantly correlated with granulation (p = 0.010, Fisher exact test). Old hemorrhage was found in 13 cases and was significantly correlated with cholesterol crystals. Twenty-one patients were followed up for 1.3–8.6 years after surgery. The 5- and 8-year survival rates were both 100%. Three patients experienced cyst recurrence. The 5- and 8-year recurrence-free rates were 95% and 81.4%, respectively.
Radiologically, an atypical epidermoid cyst should be differentiated from dermoid cyst, teratoma, schwannoma, glioma, craniopharyngioma, and cavernous angioma. A tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage is confirmed in atypical epidermoid cysts, and a hypothesis was proposed for spontaneously intracystic hemorrhage in atypical epidermoid cysts. Follow-up confirmed long-term survival of patients with atypical epidermoid cysts.