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Ahmad R. Mohamed, Jeremy L. Freeman, Wirginia Maixner, Catherine A. Bailey, Jacquie A. Wrennall and A. Simon Harvey


Temporoparietooccipital (TPO) disconnection is described mainly in children with diffuse posterior quadrant lesions and concordant electroencephalography (EEG) findings. The authors report on 16 children who underwent TPO surgery, including 4 with no definite epileptogenic lesion and 8 with generalized electroclinical manifestations.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of clinical, neuropsychological, EEG, imaging, and histopathological data in 16 children with intractable epilepsy who underwent TPO disconnection and/or resection at their center between December 1998 and March 2010.


Seizure onset occurred between the ages of 1 and 24 months, and TPO surgery was performed between the ages of 0.2 and 17 years. All children had refractory seizures, including epileptic spasms in 10 and tonic seizures in 7, and all had developmental delay. Twelve children had epileptogenic lesions on MR imaging, including 6 with posterior quadrant dysplasia. Four children had only subtle white matter signal change or unusual sulcation on MR imaging, associated with subtle but concordant EEG and functional imaging abnormalities. After a mean follow-up of 52 months (range 12–114 months), 9 children (56%) are seizure-free and 5 (31%) experienced seizure reduction of greater than 50%. Focal or regional background slowing on EEG was correlated with favorable seizure outcome. Five children showed developmental progress and 3 had acceleration in development following surgery. None of the children developed new motor deficits postoperatively.


Temporoparietooccipital disconnection is an effective, motor-sparing epilepsy surgery procedure for selected children with refractory focal or generalized seizures with localization to the posterior quadrant on 1 side, with or without a discrete lesion on MR imaging.

Open access

Daniel Lewis, Carmine A. Donofrio, Claire O’Leary, Ka-loh Li, Xiaoping Zhu, Ricky Williams, Ibrahim Djoukhadar, Erjon Agushi, Cathal J. Hannan, Emma Stapleton, Simon K. Lloyd, Simon R. Freeman, Andrea Wadeson, Scott A. Rutherford, Charlotte Hammerbeck-Ward, D. Gareth Evans, Alan Jackson, Omar N. Pathmanaban, Federico Roncaroli, Andrew T. King and David J. Coope


Inflammation and angiogenesis may play a role in the growth of sporadic and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)–related vestibular schwannoma (VS). The similarities in microvascular and inflammatory microenvironment have not been investigated. The authors sought to compare the tumor microenvironment (TME) in sporadic and NF2-related VSs using a combined imaging and tissue analysis approach.


Diffusion MRI and high-temporal-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data sets were prospectively acquired in 20 NF2-related and 24 size-matched sporadic VSs. Diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy) and DCE-MRI–derived microvascular biomarkers (transfer constant [Ktrans], fractional plasma volume, tissue extravascular-extracellular space [ve], longitudinal relaxation rate, tumoral blood flow) were compared across both VS groups, and regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of tumor size, pretreatment tumor growth rate, and tumor NF2 status (sporadic vs NF2-related) on each imaging parameter. Tissues from 17 imaged sporadic VSs and a separate cohort of 12 NF2-related VSs were examined with immunohistochemistry markers for vessels (CD31), vessel permeability (fibrinogen), and macrophage density (Iba1). The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and double immunofluorescence.


Imaging data demonstrated that DCE-MRI–derived microvascular characteristics were similar in sporadic and NF2-related VSs. Ktrans (p < 0.001), ve (p ≤ 0.004), and tumoral free water content (p ≤ 0.003) increased with increasing tumor size and pretreatment tumor growth rate. Regression analysis demonstrated that with the exception of mean diffusivity (p < 0.001), NF2 status had no statistically significant effect on any of the imaging parameters or the observed relationship between the imaging parameters and tumor size (p > 0.05). Tissue analysis confirmed the imaging metrics among resected sporadic VSs and demonstrated that across all VSs studied, there was a close association between vascularity and Iba1+ macrophage density (r = 0.55, p = 0.002). VEGF was expressed by Iba1+ macrophages.


The authors present the first in vivo comparative study of microvascular and inflammatory characteristics in sporadic and NF2-related VSs. The imaging and tissue analysis results indicate that inflammation is a key contributor to TME and should be viewed as a therapeutic target in both VS groups.