✓ Twenty-one patients with aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation underwent unilateral or bilateral endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery. Six patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 10 with mass effect, four with mass effect and SAH, and one with ischemic symptoms. Thirteen patients had good outcomes with complete clinical and angiographic cure. Six patients had partial thrombosis of their aneurysms. There was one death and one treatment failure. One patient suffered transient stroke. It is concluded that endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery following test occlusion is a safe and effective treatment for proximal aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation.
Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Jonathan E. Hodes, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Rüfenacht, Daniel Reizine, Bernard George and Jean J. Merland
Jonathan E. Hodes, Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Daniel Rüfenacht, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Reizine, André Gaston and Jean Jacques Merland
✓ Among 121 intracerebral aneurysms presenting at one institution between 1984 and 1989, 16 were treated by endovascular means. All 16 lesions were intradural and intracranial, and had failed either surgical or endovascular attempts at selective exclusion with parent vessel preservation. The lesions included four giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, one giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm, six giant posterior cerebral artery aneurysms, one posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, one giant mid-basilar artery aneurysm, two giant fusiform basilar artery aneurysms, and one dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm. One of the 16 patients failed an MCA test occlusion and was approached surgically after attempted endovascular selective occlusion. Treatment involved pretreatment evaluation of cerebral blood flow followed by a preliminary parent vessel test occlusion under neuroleptic analgesia with vigilant neurological monitoring. If the test occlusion was tolerated, it was immediately followed by permanent occlusion of the parent vessel with either detachable or nondetachable balloon or coils.
The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 8 years. Excellent outcomes were obtained in 12 cases with complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysm and no new neurological deficits and/or improvement of the pre-embolization symptoms. Four patients died: two related to the procedure, one secondary to rupture of another untreated aneurysm, and the fourth from a postoperative MCA thrombosis after having failed endovascular test occlusion. The angiographic, clinical, and cerebral blood flow criteria for occlusion tolerance are discussed.
Ulrich Sure, Nick Butz, Jürgen Schlegel, Adrian M. Siegel, Jörg P. Wakat, Hans D. Mennel, Siegfried Bien and Helmut Bertalanffy
Object. To date, both arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and cavernomas have been considered to be congenital malformations. A recent survey of the literature has shown the potential for de novo generation of both familial and sporadic cavernomas as well as AVMs. Therefore, it was of interest to determine the biological behavior of these lesions in detail.
Methods. The proliferative and angiogenic capacities of the endothelium of 13 cavernomas and 25 AVMs obtained in patients recently treated (1997–1998) at one institution were studied. Immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), MIB-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor Flk-1 was performed using standard staining procedures. Positive immunostaining of the nuclei of endothelial cells was observed in specimens of both AVMs and cavernomas for PCNA (80% of AVMs and 85% of cavernomas), and Flk-1 (80% of AVMs and 31% of cavernomas). Endothelial expression of VEGF in the 18 incompletely embolized AVMs was found in 72% of cases but only in 28% of the seven cases in which patients did not undergo endovascular treatment; it was found in 38% of cavernomas. Endothelial expression of MIB-1 was found in 12% of AVMs but in no cavernomas.
Conclusions. These results indicate that there is endothelial proliferation as well as neoangiogenesis in cerebral cavernomas and AVMs. The increased level of angiogenesis in only partially obliterated AVMs underscores the need for radical and complete occlusion of cerebral AVMs to avoid recurrences and further risks of morbidity.