Shusuke Yamamoto, Satoshi Hori, Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama and Satoshi Kuroda
This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in the collateral channels originating from the lenticulostriate artery (LSA), posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and anterior and posterior choroidal arteries (AChA and PChA, respectively) during disease progression and/or aging. The impact of collateral channels on onset type was also examined.
This study included 71 involved hemispheres in 41 patients with moyamoya disease. The disease was categorized into 6 stages according to Suzuki’s angiographic staging system. The degree of development of each moyamoya vessel was categorized into 3 grades.
The LSA started to dilate in stage 2, showed the most prominent development in stage 3, and decreased in more advanced stages (p < 0.001). The AChA most notably developed in stage 3 and gradually shrank (p = 0.04). The PCoA started to dilate in stage 3 and showed the most prominent development in stage 4 (p = 0.03). The PChA started to dilate in stage 3 and showed the most prominent development in stages 4 to 5 (p < 0.001). Patient age was negatively related to LSA development (p = 0.01, R = 0.30) and was positively associated with the abnormal dilation and extension of the PCoA (p = 0.02, R = 0.28) and PChA (p < 0.001, R = 0.45). The PCoA, AChA, and PChA more distinctly developed in hemispheres with intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhage than in hemispheres with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (p < 0.001, p = 0.03, and p = 0.03, respectively).
This study suggests that the collateral channels through moyamoya vessels longitudinally shift from the anterior to posterior component during disease progression and aging, which may be closely related to the onset of hemorrhagic stroke in adult moyamoya disease.
Haruto Uchino, Shusuke Yamamoto, Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Kyo Noguchi and Satoshi Kuroda
The calibers of donor arteries can change dynamically after bypass surgery in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). The present study aimed to evaluate the cutoffs of caliber changes in donor arteries associated with good surgical revascularization and to assess the impact of clinical factors potentially related to bypass development.
The authors studied 71 hemispheres of 30 adults and 16 children with MMD who underwent combined direct and indirect revascularization. They quantitatively measured the calibers of the superficial temporal artery (STA), deep temporal artery (DTA), and middle meningeal artery (MMA) with MR angiography (MRA) source images and calculated the postoperative caliber change ratios (CCRs) to assess direct and indirect bypass development. These values were compared with the findings of digital subtraction angiography, in which revascularization areas were categorized into 3 groups (poor, good, and excellent).
In both adult and pediatric hemispheres, the median STA and DTA CCRs were higher in better-revascularization groups (p < 0.05), while MMA CCRs were not significantly different among the groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the cutoff STA CCRs of > 1.1 and > 1.3 were associated with good direct revascularization in adult and pediatric hemispheres, respectively. Cutoff DTA CCRs of > 1.6 and > 1.2 were associated with good indirect revascularization in adult and pediatric hemispheres, respectively. Considering these cutoff values, STA and DTA CCRs showed high median values, irrespective of age, severity of cerebrovascular reserve, disease stage, and disease-onset type.
Caliber changes in STAs and DTAs can be easily measured using MRA, and they could be indicators of direct and indirect bypass development. The dual development of a direct and indirect bypass was most frequently observed in the context of a combined bypass procedure in both adults and children with MMD.