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Shunya Ohtaki, Yukinori Akiyama, Aya Kanno, Shouhei Noshiro, Tomo Hayase, Michiaki Yamakage and Nobuhiro Mikuni

OBJECTIVE

Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are a critical indicator for monitoring motor function during neurological surgery. In this study, the influence of depth of anesthesia on MEP response was assessed.

METHODS

Twenty-eight patients with brain tumors who underwent awake craniotomy were included in this study. From a state of deep anesthesia until the awake state, MEP amplitude and latency were measured using 5-train electrical bipolar stimulations on the same site of the precentral gyrus each minute during the surgery. The depth of anesthesia was evaluated using the bispectral index (BIS). BIS levels were classified into 7 stages: < 40, and from 40 to 100 in groups of 10 each. MEP amplitude and latency of each stage were compared. The deviation of the MEP measurements, which was defined as a fluctuation from the average in every BIS stage, was also considered.

RESULTS

A total of 865 MEP waves in 28 cases were evaluated in this study. MEP amplitude was increased and latency was decreased in accordance with the increases in BIS level. The average MEP amplitudes in the > 90 BIS level was approximately 10 times higher than those in the < 40 BIS level. Furthermore, the average MEP latencies in the > 90 BIS level were 1.5–3.1 msec shorter than those in the < 60 BIS level. The deviation of measured MEP amplitudes in the > 90 BIS level was significantly stabilized in comparison with that in the < 60 BIS level.

CONCLUSIONS

MEP amplitude and latency were closely correlated with depth of anesthesia. In addition, the deviation in MEP amplitude was also correlated with depth of anesthesia, which was smaller during awake surgery (high BIS level) than during deep anesthesia. Therefore, MEP measurement would be more reliable in the awake state than under deep anesthesia.

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Shunya Ohtaki, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masanori Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Shouhei Noshiro, Yukinori Akiyama, Takeshi Mikami, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou

OBJECTIVE

Glioma is a major class of brain tumors, and glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and malignant type. The nature of tumor invasion makes surgical removal difficult, which results in remote recurrence. The present study focused on glioma invasion and investigated the expression of actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1 (ACTC1), which is 1 of 6 actin families implicated in cell motility.

METHODS

mRNA expression of ACTC1 expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 47 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioma tissues that were graded according to WHO criteria: Grade I (n = 4); Grade II (n = 12); Grade III (n = 6); and Grade IV (n = 25). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The relationships between ACTC1 expression and clinical features such as radiological findings at the time of diagnosis and recurrence, patient age, Karnofsky Performance Scale status (KPS), and the MIB-1 index were evaluated.

RESULTS

The incidence of ACTC1 expression as a qualitative assessment gradually increased according to WHO grade. The hazard ratio for the median overall survival (mOS) of the patients with ACTC1-positive high-grade gliomas as compared with the ACTC1-negative group was 2.96 (95% CI, 1.03–8.56). The mOS was 6.28 years in the ACTC1-negative group and 1.26 years in the positive group (p = 0.037). In GBM patients, the hazard ratio for mOS in the ACTC1-positive GBMs as compared with the ACTC1-negative group was 2.86 (95% CI 0.97–8.45). mOS was 3.20 years for patients with ACTC1-negative GBMs and 1.08 years for patients with ACTC1-positive GBMs (p = 0.048). By the radiological findings, 42.9% of ACTC1-positive GBM patients demonstrated invasion toward the contralateral cerebral hemisphere at the time of diagnosis, although no invasion was observed in ACTC1-negative GBM patients (p = 0.013). The recurrence rate of GBM was 87.5% in the ACTC1-positive group; in contrast, none of the ACTC1-negative patients demonstrated distant recurrence (0.007). No remarkable relationship was demonstrated among ACTC1 expression and patient age, KPS, and the MIB-1 index.

CONCLUSIONS

ACTC1 may serve as a novel independent prognostic and invasion marker in GBM.