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Kazuhiko Bando, Koichi Satoh, Shunji Matsubara, Minoru Nakatani, and Shinji Nagahiro

✓ The authors report on a patient who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for stenosis of the intracranial vertebral artery (VA). This 67-year-old man's dizziness while walking was caused by infarction of the left cerebellar peduncle. On angiograms, his left VA manifested 90% stenosis at the intracranial portion and his right VA ended at the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Because single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) showed low perfusion and poor perfusion reserve in the posterior circulation, the authors performed PTA of the left VA, which was only 35% dilated due to stenosis. Although the patient's postoperative course was uneventful, postoperative hemodynamic studies (SPECT and transcranial Doppler [TCD] ultrasonography) revealed the hyperperfusion phenomenon. A 100% increase of regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior circulation was demonstrated on SPECT studies and TCD ultrasonography revealed a doubling of blood flow velocity in the VA compared with preoperative values. Careful control of the patient's blood pressure resulted in resolution of the hyperperfusion phenomenon within 1 week post-PTA. Although hyperperfusion syndrome following carotid endarterectomy is not rare, it is seldom seen after reconstruction of the posterior circulation, and the possibility of its occurrence must be kept in mind when the posterior circulation is reconstructed.

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Kimihiko Yokosuka, Masaaki Uno, Kohei Matsumura, Hiroki Takai, Hirotaka Hagino, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Hiroyuki Toi, and Shunji Matsubara

OBJECT

Endoscopic surgery was performed for acute or subacute subdural hematoma (SDH), and its effectiveness and safety in elderly patients were evaluated.

METHODS

Between September 2007 and November 2013, endoscopic surgery was performed in 11 elderly patients with acute SDH (8 patients) and subacute SDH (3 patients). The criteria for surgery were as follows: 1) the presence of clinical symptoms; 2) age older than 70 years; 3) no brain injury (intracerebral hematoma, brain contusion); 4) absence of an enlarging SDH; and 5) no high risk of bleeding. Hematoma evacuation was performed with a 4-mm rigid endoscope with a 0° lens and a malleable irrigation suction cannula.

RESULTS

Endoscopic surgery was performed under local anesthesia. The mean age of the patients was 82.6 years (range 73–91 years). There were 5 female and 6 male patients. The mean preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12, and 5 patients had been receiving antithrombotic drug therapy. The mean operation time was 85 minutes. Only 1 patient had rebleeding, and reoperation with the same technique was performed uneventfully in this individual. A total of 7 patients had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at discharge.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic hematoma evacuation of acute and subacute SDH is a safe and effective method of clot removal that minimizes operative complications. This technique may be a less invasive method for treating elderly patients with acute and subacute SDHs.

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Koichi Satoh, Junichiro Satomi, Norio Nakajima, Shunji Matsubara, and Shinji Nagahiro

Object. In this study the authors performed a retrospective analysis of five cases in which the patients (three women and two men) were treated for intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) associated with cerebellar hemorrhage. On the basis of their findings, the authors evaluated the characteristics of this unusual symptom.

Methods. The dural AVFs were located in the right cavernous sinus in one patient, the left transverse—sigmoid sinus in three patients, and the right superior petrosal sinus (SPS) in one patient. All patients presented with severe headache and/or loss of consciousness. Computerized tomography scans revealed a small cerebellar hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus in four cases, and a massive hemispheric cerebellar hemorrhage in the remaining case. The four patients with small hemorrhages underwent ventriculostomy and endovascular treatment; all recovered. The patient suffering from a massive hemorrhage because of a dural AVF in the SPS was treated by suboccipital craniectomy, hematoma evacuation, and removal of the vascular anomaly. This patient remains in a persistent vegetative state. In four cases, results of angiography demonstrated retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage through the SPS to the anastomotic lateral mesencephalic vein (ALMV) and/or to the vein of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (VLR4V). Retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage to the ALMV and/or VLR4V was responsible for cerebellar hemorrhage in these cases.

Conclusions. Thus, it is important to consider dural AVF in cases in which there is even a small hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle accompanied by intraventricular perforation and a decreased level of consciousness.

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Shunji Matsubara, Hiromu Hadeishi, Akifumi Suzuki, Nobuyuki Yasui, and Hiromi Nishimura

Object. The goal of this study was to examine the growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms with the focus on the risk factors and incidence of these lesions.

Methods. One hundred sixty-six untreated cerebral saccular aneurysms were analyzed in 140 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 29 to 82 years (mean 62.8 years), the female/male ratio was 94:46, and the mean follow-up period was 17.7 months. Aneurysms were located at the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 68 patients, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 43, the anterior cerebral artery in 38, the basilar artery (BA) in 13, and the vertebral artery in four patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 2 to 20 mm (mean 4.1 mm). All patients were examined using serial computerized tomography angiography to evaluate signs of aneurysm growth.

Although growth was identified in 10 aneurysms (nine patients [6.4%]), no bleeding occurred. Growth-related changes were significantly associated with the size of the aneurysm and occurred in three (2.4%) of 125 aneurysms measuring 2 to 4 mm, three (9.1%) of 33 lesions measuring 5 to 9 mm, and four (50%) of eight lesions measuring 10 to 20 mm. These changes were more frequently found in aneurysms located at the BA bifurcation (two [40%] of five lesions) and the ICA (six [8.8%] of 68 lesions) than in those located at the MCA (zero of 43 lesions, p < 0.05). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative growth rates calculated using the Kaplan—Meier method were 2.5, 8, and 17.6%, respectively.

Conclusions. A diameter of at least 10 mm and a location at the BA bifurcation or the ICA were significant risk factors for aneurysm growth. The incidence of growth was 2.5% in the 1st year and this risk increased yearly. Computerized tomography angiography is useful for follow up of patients with aneurysms because it allows the detection of even subtle morphological changes.

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Satoshi Hirai, Kenji Yagi, Keijiro Hara, Eiichiro Kanda, Shunji Matsubara, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Because of an aging society, the incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. This lesion is treated with simple burr hole irrigation, but one of the major issues is that CSDH frequently recurs. ABO blood type may be associated with a bleeding tendency and inflammation. However, its association with the recurrence of CSDH remains unknown. Therefore, the authors of the present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the association between ABO blood type and CSDH recurrence.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in 425 cerebral hemispheres of 376 patients who had undergone surgical treatment with irrigation of the hematoma via burr holes at their institution from January 2011 to September 2019. Among these were 366 CSDHs in 320 patients whose ABO blood type had been determined and who were included in this study.

RESULTS

In the study, 307 patients with CSDHs in 350 hemispheres were followed up postoperatively until the disappearance of the CDSH or for at least 3 months. Recurrence of CSDH was observed in 37 patients (10.6%) after surgical treatment. Blood type A was found to be significantly associated with CSDH recurrence compared to non-A blood types: 24 of 153 CDSHs (15.7%) versus 13 of 197 CDSHs (6.6%) (p = 0.008). In the multivariable regression analysis, blood type A, in addition to thrombocytopenia, was a significant independent predictor of the recurrence of CSDH.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results showed that blood type A is an independent risk factor for the postoperative recurrence of CSDH and that careful follow-up in these patients may be needed.

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Satoshi Hirai, Kenji Yagi, Keijiro Hara, Eiichiro Kanda, Shunji Matsubara, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Because of an aging society, the incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. This lesion is treated with simple burr hole irrigation, but one of the major issues is that CSDH frequently recurs. ABO blood type may be associated with a bleeding tendency and inflammation. However, its association with the recurrence of CSDH remains unknown. Therefore, the authors of the present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the association between ABO blood type and CSDH recurrence.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in 425 cerebral hemispheres of 376 patients who had undergone surgical treatment with irrigation of the hematoma via burr holes at their institution from January 2011 to September 2019. Among these were 366 CSDHs in 320 patients whose ABO blood type had been determined and who were included in this study.

RESULTS

In the study, 307 patients with CSDHs in 350 hemispheres were followed up postoperatively until the disappearance of the CDSH or for at least 3 months. Recurrence of CSDH was observed in 37 patients (10.6%) after surgical treatment. Blood type A was found to be significantly associated with CSDH recurrence compared to non-A blood types: 24 of 153 CDSHs (15.7%) versus 13 of 197 CDSHs (6.6%) (p = 0.008). In the multivariable regression analysis, blood type A, in addition to thrombocytopenia, was a significant independent predictor of the recurrence of CSDH.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results showed that blood type A is an independent risk factor for the postoperative recurrence of CSDH and that careful follow-up in these patients may be needed.

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Hiroyuki Toi, Keita Kinoshita, Satoshi Hirai, Hiroki Takai, Keijiro Hara, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Shunji Matsubara, Makoto Otani, Keiji Muramatsu, Shinya Matsuda, Kiyohide Fushimi, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Aging of the population may lead to epidemiological changes with respect to chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The objectives of this study were to elucidate the current epidemiology and changing trends of CSDH in Japan. The authors analyzed patient information based on reports using a Japanese administrative database associated with the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system.

METHODS

This study included patients with newly diagnosed CSDH who were treated in hospitals participating in the DPC system. The authors collected data from the administrative database on the following clinical and demographic characteristics: patient age, sex, and level of consciousness on admission; treatment procedure; and outcome at discharge.

RESULTS

A total of 63,358 patients with newly diagnosed CSDH and treated in 1750 DPC participation hospitals were included in this study. Analysis according to patient age showed that the most common age range for these patients was the 9th decade of life (in their 80s). More than half of patients 70 years old or older presented with some kind of disturbance of consciousness. Functional outcomes at discharge were good in 71.6% (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) of cases and poor in 28.4% (mRS score 3–6). The percentage of poor outcomes tended to be higher in elderly patients. Approximately 40% of patients 90 years old or older could not be discharged to home. The overall recurrence rate for CSDH was 13.1%.

CONCLUSIONS

This study shows a chronological change in the age distribution of CSDH among Japanese patients, which may be affecting the prognosis of this condition. In the aging population of contemporary Japan, patients in their 80s were affected more often than patients in other age categories, and approximately 30% of patients with CSDH required some help at discharge. CSDH thus may no longer have as good a prognosis as had been thought.

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Mami Hanaoka, Koichi Satoh, Junichiro Satomi, Shunji Matsubara, Shinji Nagahiro, Osamu Takimoto, and Masaaki Ohbayashi

✓ The authors describe a novel technique involving the use of a gooseneck snare for microcatheterization of isolated sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). In some patients the inferior petrosal and transverse–sigmoid sinuses, the route of transvenous embolization (TVE) for DAVF, are separated by several channels. Even if a guidewire can be passed over the occluded portion and the affected sinus can be accessed, one may not necessarily be able to insert a microcatheter. The authors report on three patients who underwent successful microcatheterization via a novel pull-up technique, which makes use of a gooseneck snare to perform TVE even in very difficult circumstances.

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Shunji Matsubara, Junta Moroi, Akifumi Suzuki, Masahiro Sasaki, Ken Nagata, Iwao Kanno, and Shuichi Miura

Object

The authors analyzed cerebral perfusion and metabolism in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods

Sixteen patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (> 70%) underwent PET scanning before CAS, 1–7 days after CAS, and 3–4 months after CAS to assess a variety of parameters related to cerebral perfusion and metabolism.

Results

Cerebral blood flow at rest (CBFrest) significantly increased in the immediate postoperative stage before returning to normal levels over the long term; this trend was also recognized on the contralateral side. In contrast, there was gradual improvement in the rate of CBF variation on acetazolamide administration (% CBFaz). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CBF/cerebral blood volume) increased rapidly during the acute stage and decreased in the long term, and the oxygen extraction fraction decreased slightly during the acute stage before normalizing over the long term. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) increased slightly after stenting over both the short and long term. The ratios of ipsilateral to contralateral values (asymmetry index) for CBFrest, % CBFaz, cerebral blood volume, oxygen extraction fraction, and CMRO2 tended to approach 1.0 over time.

Conclusions

Repeated PET scanning revealed improvements in CBF, perfusion pressure, and oxygen metabolism after CAS. In particular, the vascular reserve tended to improve gradually, while CBF, cerebral perfusion pressure, and CMRO2 increased rapidly and peaked soon after CAS. These results suggest that a large discrepancy between rapidly increased CBF, perfusion pressure, and a small increase in vascular reserve in the acute stage after CAS could cause hyperperfusion syndrome.