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Takayoshi Shimizu, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Koichi Murata and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

The use of indirect decompression surgery for severe canal stenosis remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lateral interbody fusion (LIF) without posterior decompression in degenerative lumbar spinal spondylosis with severe stenosis on preoperative MRI.

METHODS

This is a retrospective case series from a single academic institution. The authors included 42 patients (45 surgical levels) who were preoperatively diagnosed with severe degenerative lumbar stenosis on MRI based on the previously published Schizas classification. These patients underwent LIF with supplemental pedicle screw fixation without posterior decompression. Surgical levels were limited to L3–4 and/or L4–5. All patients satisfied the minimum 1-year MRI follow-up. The authors compared the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thecal sac and the clinical outcome scores (Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] score) preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at the 1-year follow-up. Fusion status and disc height were evaluated based on CT scans obtained at the 1-year follow-up.

RESULTS

The CSA improved over time, increasing from 54.5 ± 19.2 mm2 preoperatively to 84.7 ± 31.8 mm2 at 3 weeks postoperatively and to 132.6 ± 37.5 mm2 at the last follow-up (average 28.3 months) (p < 0.001). The JOA score significantly improved over time (preoperatively 16.1 ± 4.1, 3 months postoperatively 24.4 ± 4.0, and 1-year follow-up 25.7 ± 2.9; p < 0.001). The fusion rate at the 1-year follow-up was 88.8%, and disc heights were significantly restored (preoperative, 6.3 mm and postoperative, 9.6 mm; p < 0.001). Patients showing poor CSA expansion (< 200% expansion rate) at the last follow-up had a higher prevalence of pseudarthrosis than patients with significant CSA expansion (> 200% expansion rate) (25.0% vs 3.4%, p < 0.001). No major perioperative complications were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

LIF with indirect decompression for degenerative lumbar disease with severe canal stenosis provided successful clinical outcomes, including restoration of disc height and indirect expansion of the thecal sac. Severe canal stenosis diagnosed on preoperative MRI itself is not a contraindication for indirect decompression surgery.

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Bungo Otsuki, Mitsuru Takemoto, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Kazutaka Masamoto and Shuichi Matsuda

Several articles have described the use of screw insertion guides during primary spine surgery; however, the use of such a guide during revision surgeries has not been described. The purpose of this study is to describe the utility of a custom screw insertion (CSI) guide assembled using a novel method and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster (FCTP) model for safe and accurate revision surgery.

The authors applied the CSI guide and the FCTP model in 3 cases. In the first case, a patient with multiple failed cervical spine surgeries underwent occipitocervicothoracic fusion. After a successful result for this patient, the authors applied the CSI guide in 2 other patients who underwent revision lumbar fusion surgeries to confirm the accuracy and the efficacy of the CSI guides in such cases. The models and guides were fabricated using rapid prototyping technology. The effectiveness of these methods was examined.

The FCTP model was designed using CT data. During model assembly, implants inserted during previous surgery were removed virtually, and for the cervical spine, vertebral arteries were colored red for planning. The CSI guide was designed with 5 or 6 arms to fit the bone surface precisely after removing artifacts. Surgery was performed by referring to the FCTP model. Because the actual structure of the bone surface was almost identical to that of the FCTP model, surgical exposure around the complex bone shape proceeded smoothly. The CSI guides were positioned accurately to aid the successful insertion of a pedicle screw into the C-2 vertebra in the case of cervical revision surgery, and 4 pedicle screws for lumbar vertebrae in the 2 other patients. Postoperative CT scans showed that all screw positions closely matched those predicted during the preoperative planning. In conclusion, the FCTP models and the novel CSI guides were effective for safe and accurate revision surgery of the spine.

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Koichi Murata, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Takayoshi Shimizu, Kazutaka Masamoto and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

In this study the authors aimed to evaluate the rate of malposition, including pedicle breach and superior facet violation, after percutaneous insertion of pedicle screws using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle, and to assess the risk factors for pedicle breach.

METHODS

In total, 394 percutaneous screws placed in 85 patients using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle between January 2014 and September 2017 were assessed, and 445 pedicle screws inserted in 116 patients using conventional open procedures were used for reference. Pedicle breach and superior facet violation were evaluated by postoperative 0.4-mm slice CT.

RESULTS

Superior facet violation was observed in 0.5% of the percutaneous screws and 1.8% of the conventionally inserted screws. Pedicle breach occurred more frequently with percutaneous screws (28.9%) than with conventionally inserted screws (11.9%). The breaches in percutaneous screws were minor and did not reduce the interbody fusion rate. The angle difference between the percutaneous and conventionally inserted screws was comparable. Insertion at the L3 or L4 level, right-sided insertion, placement around a trefoil canal, smaller pedicle angle, and a small difference between the screw and pedicle diameters were found to be risk factors for pedicle breach by percutaneous pedicle screws.

CONCLUSIONS

Percutaneous pedicle screw placement using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle carries a low risk of superior facet violation. The screws should be placed carefully considering the level and side of insertion, canal shape, and pedicle angle.

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Naotaka Usui, Kiyohito Terada, Koichi Baba, Kazumi Matsuda, Takayasu Tottori, Shuichi Umeoka, Tadahiro Mihara, Fumihiro Nakamura, Keiko Usui and Yushi Inoue

Object

The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a short train of high-frequency (500 Hz) cortical stimulation to delineate the primary motor cortex (MI), supplementary motor area (SMA), primary somatosensory cortex (SI), supplementary sensory area (SSA), negative motor area (NMA), and supplementary negative motor area (SNMA) in patients with epilepsy who were undergoing functional mapping.

Methods

Seventeen patients were studied, all of whom underwent functional mapping using 50-Hz electrical stimulation. After these clinical evaluations, cortical stimulations with a short train of electrical pulses at 500 Hz were performed through subdural electrodes placed at the MI, SMA, SI, SSA, NMA, and SNMA, which had been identified by 50-Hz stimulation, and surrounding cortical areas, while surface electromyography readings were recorded.

Results

Stimulation of the MI elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral muscles. Stimulation of the SMA also induced MEPs in contralateral muscles but with longer latencies compared with the MI stimulation. Stimulation of the SMA did not elicit MEPs in ipsilateral muscles. Stimulation of the SI, SSA, NMA, and SNMA did not induce MEPs in any muscle. In one patient, MEPs were elicited without seizure induction by 500-Hz stimulation of the electrodes, whereas a 50-Hz stimulation of the same electrodes induced his habitual seizures.

Conclusions

Extraoperative high-frequency stimulation with MEP monitoring is a useful complementary method for cortical mapping without inducing seizure. Stimulation of SMA induces MEPs in contralateral muscles, with longer latencies compared with the stimulation of MI. This finding may be useful for the differentiation between MI and SMA, especially in the foot motor areas.

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Kazuaki Morizane, Mitsuru Takemoto, Masashi Neo, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Shimei Tanida, Takayoshi Shimizu, Hiromu Ito and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

Dyspnea and/or dysphagia is a life-threatening complication after occipitocervical fusion. The occiput-C2 angle (O-C2a) is useful for preventing dyspnea and/or dysphagia because O-C2a affects the oropharyngeal space. However, O-C2a is unreliable in atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) because it does not reflect the translational motion of the cranium to C2, another factor affecting oropharyngeal area in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have reducible AAS. The authors previously proposed the occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle (O-EAa; i.e., the angle made by McGregor’s line and a line joining the external auditory canal and the middle point of the endplate of the axis [EA line]) as a novel, useful, and powerful predictor of the anterior-posterior narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS) distance in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the validity of O-EAa as an indicator of oropharyngeal airway space in RA patients with AAS.

METHODS

The authors investigated 64 patients with RA. The authors collected lateral cervical radiographs at neutral position, flexion, extension, protrusion, and retraction and measured the O-C2a, C2-C6, O-EAa, anterior atlantodental interval (AADI), and nPAS. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the presence of AAS and its mobility: group N, patients without AAS; and group R, patients with reducible AAS during dynamic cervical movement.

RESULTS

Group N had a significantly lower AADI and O-EAa than group R in all but the extension position. The O-EAa was a better predictor for nPAS than O-C2a according to the mixed-effects models in both groups (marginal R2: 0.510 and 0.575 for the O-C2a and O-EAa models in group N, and 0.250 and 0.390 for the same models, respectively, in group R).

CONCLUSIONS

O-EAa was superior to O-C2a in predicting nPAS, especially in the case of AAS, because it affects both O-C2a and cranial translational motion. O-EAa would be a useful parameter for surgeons performing occipitocervical fusion in patients with AAS.

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Yasushi Motoyama, Tsukasa Nakajima, Yoshiaki Takamura, Tsutomu Nakazawa, Daisuke Wajima, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroshi Yokota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Mitsutoshi Nakamura and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall.

METHODS

Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared.

RESULTS

Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36–8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8–14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3–44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491–7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who did not undergo LSD (OR 9.127, 95% CI 1.82–62.1, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Brain herniation downward to the tentorial hiatus is more likely to occur after craniotomy with LSD than after craniotomy without LSD. Using a deep approach and craniotomy involving the temporal areas are risk factors for brain herniation related to LSD. Additional ED would aggravate brain herniation after LSD. The risk of brain herniation after placement of a lumbar spinal drain during neurosurgery must be considered even when LSD is essential.

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Shuichi Umeoka, Kazumi Matsuda, Koichi Baba, Naotaka Usui, Takayasu Tottori, Kiyohito Terada, Keiko Usui, Fumihiro Nakamura, Yushi Inoue, Tateki Fujiwara and Tadahiro Mihara

Object

To provide greater accuracy in determining the epileptogenic zone during preoperative evaluation, the authors retrospectively examined 123I-iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography (IMZ SPECT) studies obtained in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in whom there was no evidence of an abnormality on magnetic resonance (MR) images.

Methods

Twelve patients, seven with mesial TLE (MTLE) and five with lateral TLE (LTLE), satisfied the criteria for inclusion in the study. The IMZ SPECT findings in these patients were reviewed retrospectively, and a comparison was made between findings in patients with MTLE and those in patients with LTLE.

Results

The IMZ SPECT studies demonstrated decreased IMZ uptake in the ipsilateral mesial temporal region and the anterobasal temporal lobe in all patients who had MTLE on only one side. On the other hand, IMZ SPECT examinations revealed low IMZ uptake in the ipsilateral lateral temporal lobe in four of five patients with LTLE in whom abnormal findings were restricted to the lateral neocortex. In the remaining patient with LTLE, abnormally low IMZ uptake was found in both mesial and lateral temporal lobes, although pure LTLE was diagnosed by an invasive electroencephalographic evaluation; this patient's habitual seizures continued even after temporal lobectomy, although his mesial structures were spared.

Conclusions

The authors report characteristics of IMZ SPECT findings that differed between patients with MTLE and those with LTLE. The IMZ SPECT examinations proved useful for preoperative evaluation and, to a certain extent, for discrimination between MTLE and LTLE in cases in which MR imaging demonstrated normal findings. The results of this study suggest that IMZ SPECT findings may reflect localization of the epileptogenic zone.