N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Junfeng Lu, Zhengda Yu, Shuai Wu, Bin Wu, Fengping Zhu, Yanyan Song, Hong Chen and Jinsong Wu
Insular lobe gliomas continue to challenge neurosurgeons due to their complex anatomical position. Transcortical and transsylvian corridors remain the primary approaches for reaching the insula, but the adoption of one technique over the other remains controversial. The authors analyzed the transcortical approach of resecting insular gliomas in the context of patient tumor location based on the Berger-Sinai classification, achievable extents of resection (EORs), overall survival (OS), and postsurgical neurological outcome.
The authors studied 255 consecutive cases of insular gliomas that underwent transcortical tumor resection in their division. Tumor molecular pathology, location, EOR, postoperative neurological outcome for each insular zone, and the accompanying OS were incorporated into the analysis to determine the value of this surgical approach.
Lower-grade insular gliomas (LGGs) were more prevalent (63.14%). Regarding location, giant tumors (involving all insular zones) were most prevalent (58.82%) followed by zone I+IV (anterior) tumors (20.39%). In LGGs, tumor location was an independent predictor of survival (p = 0.003), with giant tumors demonstrating shortest patient survival (p = 0.003). Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation was more likely to be associated with giant tumors (p < 0.001) than focal tumors located in a regional zone. EOR correlated with survival in both LGG (p = 0.001) and higher-grade glioma (HGG) patients (p = 0.008). The highest EORs were achieved in anterior-zone LGGs (p = 0.024). In terms of developing postoperative neurological deficits, patients with giant tumors were more susceptible (p = 0.038). Postoperative transient neurological deficit was recorded in 12.79%, and permanent deficit in 15.70% of patients. Patients who developed either transient or permanent postsurgical neurological deficits exhibited poorer survival (p < 0.001).
The transcortical surgical approach can achieve maximal tumor resection in all insular zones. In addition, the incorporation of adjunct technologies such as multimodal brain imaging and mapping of cortical and subcortical eloquent brain regions into the transcortical approach favors postoperative neurological outcomes, and prolongs patient survival.
Hong-Qi Zhang, Tong Chen, Shao-Shuai Wu, Liang-Hong Teng, Yong-Zhong Li, Li-Yong Sun, Zhi-Ping Zhang, De-Yu Guo, De-Hong Lu and Feng Ling
The authors undertook this study to establish an animal model to investigate the pathophysiological changes of venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM).
This study was a randomized control animal study with blinded evaluation. The VHM model was developed in 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits by means of renal artery and vein anastomosis and trapping of the posterior vena cava; 12 rabbits were subjected to sham surgery. The rabbits were investigated by spinal function evaluation, abdominal aortic angiography, spinal MRI, and pathological examination of the spinal cord at different follow-up stages.
Twenty-two (91.67%) of 24 model rabbits survived the surgery and postoperative period. The patency rate of the arteriovenous fistula was 95.45% in these 22 animals. The model rabbits had significantly decreased motor and sensory hindlimb function as well as abnormalities at the corresponding segments of the spinal cord. Pathological examination showed dilation and hyalinization of the small blood vessels, perivascular and intraparenchymal lymphocyte infiltration, proliferation of glial cells, and neuronal degeneration. Electron microscopic examination showed loose lamellar structure of the myelin sheath, increased numbers of mitochondria in the thin myelinated fibers, and pyknotic neurons.
This model of VHM is stable and repeatable. Exploration of the sequential changes in spinal cord and blood vessels has provided improved understanding of this pathology, and the model may have potential for improving therapeutic results.
Xinghuo Wu, Kirkham B. Wood, Yong Gao, Shuai Li, Jing Wang, Ting Ge, Boming Zhao, Zengwu Shao, Shuhua Yang and Cao Yang
This study aimed to compare the clinical results of using posterior fixation and fusion with or without anterior decompression to treat os odontoideum with atlantoaxial dislocation.
Twenty-five consecutive patients with os odontoideum were included in this study. Sixteen patients with reducible atlantoaxial dislocation were treated by single-level posterior fusion and stabilization; the other 9 were treated with posterior fusion and stabilization combined with transoral decompression. Pre- and postoperative CT scans and MR images were obtained.
Twenty-four patients were followed for 24–54 months (average 36.5 months). Postoperative CT scans indicated that all pedicle screws were placed satisfactorily except in 2 cases, in which the screws slightly penetrated the transverse foramen. Postoperative MR images demonstrated that sufficient decompression of the spinal cord was obtained in all patients. Complications included 1 case each of pedicle screw breakage, pharynx ulcer, and persistent pharynx discomfort. Statistical analysis of all cases revealed that mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores improved from a preoperative score of 10.2 (range 7–13) to a postoperative score of 15.6 (range 11–18).
Patients who have os odontoideum with a reducible atlantoaxial dislocation can be effectively treated with single-level posterior fusion and stabilization. Combined transoral decompression and posterior fusion and stabilization is recommended for those with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.