Ye Tian, Zhige Shi, Shu Yang, Yingzhu Chen and Shiyao Bao
The aim of this study was to determine the relation between changes in myelin basic protein (MBP) levels during the acute and subacute phases of central nervous system injury following whole-brain radiation and delayed demyelination in the radiation-injured brain tissue.
Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with single fractions of 2, 10, or 30 Gy of whole-brain radiation. The authors measured MBP gene expression and protein levels in the brain tissue by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 1 week and 1–3 months following irradiation to monitor myelin changes in the brain. Demyelination was determined with Luxol fast blue myelin staining and routine histopathological and electron microscopy examination of injured brain tissue. The changes in MBP levels in the different animal groups at specific time points were correlated with demyelination in corresponding dose groups.
At 1 month after applying the 10 and 30 Gy of radiation, MBP mRNA expression showed a transient but significant decrease, followed by recovery to baseline levels at 3 months after treatment. The MBP levels were decreased by only 70–75% at 1 month after 10 and 30 Gy of radiation. At 2–3 months after applying the higher dose of 30 Gy, however, the MBP levels continued to decline, and typical demyelination changes were observed with myelin staining and ultrastructural examination.
The authors' results suggest that the early radiation-induced MBP changes between 1 and 3 months after single treatments of 10 and 30 Gy of radiation to the whole brain are indicative of permanent injury shown as demyelination of irradiated brain tissue.
Yu-Li Lee, Shu-Tian Chen, Jen-Tsung Yang, Hsu-Huei Weng, Hsueh-Lin Wang and Yuan-Hsiung Tsai
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is facial pain that is usually caused by neurovascular compression syndrome and is characterized by suddenly intense and paroxysmal pain. Radiofrequency lesioning (RFL) is one of the major treatments for TN, but the treatment response for RFL is sometimes inconsistent, and the recurrence of TN is not uncommon. This study aimed to estimate the outcome predictors of TN treated with RFL by using the parameters of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Fifty-one patients with TN who were treated with RFL were enrolled in the study. MRI was performed in all patients within 1 week before surgery. The visual analog scale was used to evaluate symptom severity at three time points: before, 1 week after, and 3 months after RFL. The involved cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerves was manually selected, and the histograms of each of the diffusivity metrics—including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD)—were measured. The differences in the means, as well as the kurtosis and skewness of each of the diffusivity metrics between the nonrecurrent and recurrent groups, were then analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test.
There were significantly lower kurtosis values (a broader peak of the distributional curves) for both FA and ADC in the recurrent group (p = 0.0004 and 0.015, respectively), compared to the nonrecurrent group. The kurtoses of AD and RD, as well as the mean and skewness of all other diffusivity metrics, did not show significant differences between the two groups.
The pretreatment diffusivity metrics of DTI and ADC may be feasible imaging biomarkers for predicting the outcome of TN after RFL. A clarification of the kurtosis value of FA and ADC is helpful for determining the prognosis of patients after RFL.