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Tetsuji Inagawa, Akihiko Takechi, Kaita Yahara, Jun Saito, Kouzo Moritake, Shotai Kobayashi, Yoshito Fujii and Chie Sugimura

Object. The purpose of this community-based study was first to estimate the incidence rates of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Izumo City, Japan, and second to investigate whether there were seasonal and diurnal periodicities in their onset.

Methods. During 1991 through 1996, 267 patients with primary ICH and 123 with aneurysmal SAH were treated in Izumo City. The crude and the age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rates per 100,000 population for all ages were 52 and 48 for ICH and 24 and 23 for SAH, respectively. These incidence rates were higher than those previously published for any other geographical region. The incidence rates of both ICH and SAH increased almost linearly with age. For ICH, a significant seasonal pattern was observed in men and in patients younger than 65 years, with a peak in winter and a trough in summer. However, no significant seasonal fluctuation was found in women or in individuals aged 65 years or older. There was no significant seasonal periodicity for SAH, even when patients were analyzed according to sex and age. Diurnal variations in the onset of both ICH and SAH were significant (except in men with SAH), with a nadir between midnight and 6:00 a.m.

Conclusions. The actual incidence rates of both primary ICH and aneurysmal SAH seem to be much higher than have been reported so far. In addition, the data indicate the existence of seasonal periodicity for men and younger patients with ICH, and that the risk of both ICH and SAH is lower during nighttime.

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Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamoto, Tadashi Ino, Toru Kimura, Shotai Kobayashi and Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study Group


The present study aimed to investigate aneurysm locations and treatments for ruptured cerebral aneurysms associated with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by using comprehensive data from the Japanese Stroke DataBank.


Among 101,165 patients with acute stroke registered between 2000 and 2013, 4693 patients (1482 men, 3211 women) were registered as having had an SAH caused by a ruptured saccular aneurysm. Of them, 1448 patients (438 men and 1010 women; mean age 61.9 ± 13.4 years) who were confirmed to have or not have coexisting acute hydrocephalus and sNPH were included for statistical analyses. Locations of the ruptured aneurysms were subcategorized into 1 of the following 4 groups: middle cerebral artery (MCA; n = 354), anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; n = 496), internal carotid artery (ICA; n = 402), and posterior circulation (n = 130). Locations of 66 of the ruptured aneurysms were unknown/unrecorded. Treatments included craniotomy and clipping alone in 1073 patients, endovascular coil embolization alone in 285 patients, and a combination of coiling and clipping in 17 patients. The age-adjusted and multivariate odds ratios from logistic regression analyses were calculated after stratification using the Fisher CT scale to investigate the effects of the hematoma volume of SAH.


Acute hydrocephalus was confirmed in 593 patients, and 521 patients developed sNPH. Patients with a ruptured ACA aneurysm had twice the risk for sNPH over those with a ruptured MCA aneurysm. Those with an ACA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 3 SAH had a 9-fold-higher risk for sNPH than those with an MCA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 1 or 2 SAH. Patients with a ruptured posterior circulation aneurysm did not have any significant risk for sNPH. Clipping of the ruptured aneurysm resulted in twice the risk for sNPH over coil embolization alone.


Patients with low-grade SAH caused by a ruptured MCA aneurysm had a low risk for the development of sNPH. In contrast, patients with high-grade SAH caused by a ruptured ACA aneurysm had a higher risk for sNPH. Endovascular coiling might confer a lower risk of developing sNPH than microsurgical clipping.