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A. Gabriella Wernicke, Andrew W. Smith, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z. Yondorf, Bhupesh Parashar, Samuel Trichter, Lucy Nedialkova, Albert Sabbas, Paul Christos, Rohan Ramakrishna, Susan C. Pannullo, Philip E. Stieg and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Managing patients whose intraparenchymal brain metastases recur after radiotherapy remains a challenge. Intraoperative cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy performed at the time of neurosurgical resection may represent an excellent salvage treatment option. The authors evaluated the outcomes of this novel treatment with permanent intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy.

METHODS

Thirteen patients with 15 metastases to the brain that recurred after stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy were treated between 2010 and 2015. Stranded Cs-131 seeds were placed as a permanent volume implant. Prescription dose was 80 Gy at 5-mm depth from the resection cavity surface. The primary end point was resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP). Resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP), regional FFP, distant FFP, median survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity were assessed.

RESULTS

The median duration of follow-up after salvage treatment was 5 months (range 0.5–18 months). The patients' median age was 64 years (range 51–74 years). The median resected tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range 1.0–5.6 cm). The median number of seeds implanted was 19 (range 10–40), with a median activity per seed of 2.25 U (range 1.98–3.01 U) and median total activity of 39.6 U (range 20.0–95.2 U). The 1-year actuarial local FFP was 83.3%. The median OS was 7 months, and 1-year OS was 24.7%. Complications included infection (3), pseudomeningocele (1), seizure (1), and asymptomatic radionecrosis (RN) (1).

CONCLUSIONS

After failure of prior irradiation of brain metastases, re-irradiation with intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy implants provides durable local control and limits the risk of RN. The authors' initial experience demonstrates that this treatment approach is well tolerated and safe for patients with previously irradiated tumors after failure of more than 1 radiotherapy regimen and that it results in excellent response rates and minimal toxicity.

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Diana A. Julie, Stefanie P. Lazow, Daniel B. Vanderbilt, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z. Yondorf, Albert Sabbas, Susan Pannullo, Theodore H. Schwartz and A. Gabriella Wernicke

OBJECTIVE

Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), such as cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), reduces local recurrence (LR) of brain metastases (BM). However, SRS is less efficacious for large cavities, and the delay between surgery and SRS may permit tumor repopulation. Cs-131 has demonstrated improved local control, with reduced radiation necrosis (RN) compared to SRS. This study represents the first comparison of outcomes between Cs-131 brachytherapy and SRS for resected BM.

METHODS

Patients with BM treated with Cs-131 and SRS following gross-total resection were retrospectively identified. Thirty patients who underwent Cs-131 brachytherapy were compared to 60 controls who received SRS. Controls were selected from a larger cohort to match the patients treated with Cs-131 in a 2:1 ratio according to tumor size, histology, performance status, and recursive partitioning analysis class. Overall survival (OS), LR, regional recurrence, distant recurrence (DR), and RN were compared.

RESULTS

With a median follow-up of 17.5 months for Cs-131–treated and 13.0 months for SRS-treated patients, the LR rate was significantly lower with brachytherapy; 10% for the Cs-131 cohort compared to 28.3% for SRS patients (OR 0.281, 95% CI 0.082–0.949; p = 0.049). Rates of regional recurrence, DR, and OS did not differ significantly between the two cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing showed a significantly higher likelihood of freedom from LR (p = 0.027) as well as DR (p = 0.018) after Cs-131 compared to SRS treatment (p = 0.027), but no difference in likelihood of OS (p = 0.093). Six (10.0%) patients who underwent SRS experienced RN compared to 1 (3.3%) patient who received Cs-131 (p = 0.417).

CONCLUSIONS

Postresection patients with BM treated with Cs-131 brachytherapy were more likely to achieve local control compared to SRS-treated patients. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential of Cs-131 to reduce LR following gross-total resection of single BM, with minimal toxicity, and suggests the need for a prospective study to address this question.