Pseudomeningocele arises after spinal fracture and nerve root avulsion or after complications of spine surgery. However, traumatic pseudomeningocele with spina bifida occulta is rare. In this report, a traumatic pseudomeningocele in a patient with spina bifida occulta that required surgical treatment is documented. This 37-year-old man presented to the authors' hospital with headache and a fluctuant mass in the center of his buttocks. A CT scan with myelography and MR imaging of the sacral region revealed a large subcutaneous area of fluid retention communicating with the intradural space through a defect of the S-2 lamina. Because 3 months of conservative treatment was unsuccessful, a free fat graft was placed with fibrin glue to seal the closure of the defect, followed by 1 week of CSF drainage. This is the first report on traumatic pseudomeningocele with spina bifida occulta successfully treated in this manner.
Tomohiro Banno, Tsuyoshi Ohishi, Daisuke Suzuki, Yosuke Honda, Sho Kobayashi and Yukihiro Matsuyama
Hiroki Ushirozako, Go Yoshida, Sho Kobayashi, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Daisuke Togawa and Yukihiro Matsuyama
Intraoperative neuromonitoring may be valuable for predicting postoperative neurological complications, and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are the most reliable monitoring modality with high sensitivity. One of the most frequent problems of TcMEP monitoring is the high rate of false-positive alerts, also called “anesthetic fade.” The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors for false-positive TcMEP alerts and to find ways to reduce false-positive rates.
The authors analyzed 703 patients who underwent TcMEP monitoring under total intravenous anesthesia during spinal surgery within a 7-year interval. They defined an alert point as final TcMEP amplitudes ≤ 30% of the baseline. Variations in body temperature (maximum − minimum body temperature during surgery) were measured. Patients with false-positive alerts were classified into 2 groups: a global group with alerts observed in 2 or more muscles of the upper and lower extremities, and a focal group with alerts observed in 1 muscle.
False-positive alerts occurred in 100 cases (14%), comprising 60 cases with global and 40 cases with focal alerts. Compared with the 545 true-negative cases, in the false-positive cases the patients had received a significantly higher total propofol dose (1915 mg vs 1380 mg; p < 0.001). In the false-positive cases with global alerts, the patients had also received a higher mean propofol dose than those with focal alerts (4.5 mg/kg/hr vs 4.2 mg/kg/hr; p = 0.087). The cutoff value of the total propofol dose for predicting false-positive alerts, with the best sensitivity and specificity, was 1550 mg. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that a total propofol dose > 1550 mg (OR 4.583; 95% CI 2.785–7.539; p < 0.001), variation in body temperature (1°C difference; OR 1.691; 95% CI 1.060–2.465; p < 0.01), and estimated blood loss (500-ml difference; OR 1.309; 95% CI 1.155–1.484; p < 0.001) were independently associated with false-positive alerts.
Intraoperative total propofol dose > 1550 mg, larger variation in body temperature, and greater blood loss are independently associated with false-positive alerts during spinal surgery. The authors believe that these factors may contribute to the false-positive global alerts that characterize anesthetic fade. As it is necessary to consider multiple confounding factors to distinguish false-positive alerts from true-positive alerts, including variation in body temperature or ischemic condition, the authors argue the importance of a team approach that includes surgeons, anesthesiologists, and medical engineers.
Yu Yamato, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Sho Kobayashi, Tatsuya Yasuda, Daisuke Togawa, Go Yoshida, Tomohiro Banno, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara and Yukihiro Matsuyama
Despite the significant incidence of rod fractures (RFs) following long-segment corrective fusion surgery, little is known about the optimal treatment strategy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the time course of clinical symptoms and treatments in patients with RFs following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery and to establish treatment recommendations.
This study was a retrospective case series of patients with RFs whose data were retrieved from a prospectively collected single-center database. The authors reviewed the cases of 304 patients (mean age 62.9 years) who underwent ASD surgery. Primary symptoms, time course of symptoms, and treatments were investigated by reviewing medical records. Standing whole-spine radiographs obtained before and after RF development and at last follow-up were evaluated. Osseous union was assessed using CT scans and intraoperative findings.
There were 54 RFs in 53 patients (mean age 68.5 years [range 41–84 years]) occurring at a mean of 21 months (range 6–47 months) after surgery. In 1 patient RF occurred twice, with each case at a different time and level, and the symptoms and treatments for these 2 RFs were analyzed separately (1 case of revision surgery and 1 case of nonoperative treatment). The overall rate of RF observed on radiographs after a minimum follow-up of 1 year was 18.0% (54 of 300 cases). The clinical symptoms at the time of RF were pain in 77.8% (42 of 54 cases) and no onset of new symptoms in 20.5% (11 of 54 cases). The pain was temporary and had subsided in 19 of 42 cases (45%) within 2 weeks. In 36 of the 54 cases (66.7%) (including the first RF in the patient with 2 RFs), patients underwent revision surgery at a mean of 116 days (range 5–888 days) after diagnosis. In 18 cases patients received only nonoperative treatment as of the last follow-up, including 17 cases in which the patients experienced no pain and no remarkable progression of deformity (mean 18.5 months after RF development).
This analysis of 54 RFs in 53 patients following corrective fusion surgery for ASD demonstrates a relationship between symptoms and alignment change. Revision surgeries were performed in a total of 36 cases. Nonoperative care was offered in 18 (33.3%) of 54 cases at the last follow-up, with no additional symptoms in 17 of the 18 cases. These data offer useful information regarding informed decision making for patients in whom an RF occurs after ASD surgery.
Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Daisuke Togawa, Sho Kobayashi, Go Yoshida, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe and Yukihiro Matsuyama
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of position on lumbar lordosis (LL) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients.
The authors evaluated the radiographic data of ASD patients who underwent posterior corrective fusion surgery from the thoracic spine to L5, S1, or the ilium for the treatment of ASD of the lumbar spine. The spinopelvic parameters were measured in the standing position preoperatively. LL was also evaluated in the supine position preoperatively and in the prone position on the surgical frame. Changes in LL were compared between groups.
Eighty-five patients were included. The average LL in standing, supine, and prone positions was 11.8°, 24.3°, and 24.0°, respectively. LL increased significantly from standing to supine or prone position (p < 0.001). In 80 patients (94.1%), the difference between supine LL and prone LL was within 5°. Change in LL from standing to prone position was significantly higher in the severe deformity group.
The lordotic effect of intraoperative prone positioning was remarkable in patients with severe deformities. LL in the supine position was approximately the same as that in the prone position. Therefore, assessing preoperative supine lateral lumbar radiographs enables one to plan corrective spinal surgeries in ASD patients.
Upper instrumented vertebra to the right of the lowest instrumented vertebra as a predictor of an increase in the main thoracic curve after selective posterior fusion for the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve in Lenke type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: multicenter study on the relationship between fusion area and surgical outcome
Hiroki Oba, Jun Takahashi, Sho Kobayashi, Tetsuro Ohba, Shota Ikegami, Shugo Kuraishi, Masashi Uehara, Takashi Takizawa, Ryo Munakata, Terue Hatakenaka, Michihiko Koseki, Shigeto Ebata, Hirotaka Haro, Yukihiro Matsuyama and Hiroyuki Kato
Unfused main thoracic (MT) curvatures occasionally increase after selective thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) fusion. This study sought to identify the predictors of an unacceptable increase in MT curve (UIMT) after selective posterior fusion (SPF) of the TL/L curve in patients with Lenke type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Forty-eight consecutive patients (44 females and 4 males, mean age 15.7 ± 2.5 years, range 13–24 years) with Lenke type 5C AIS who underwent SPF of the TL/L curve were analyzed. The novel “Shinshu line” (S-line) was defined as a line connecting the centers of the concave-side pedicles of the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) on preoperative radiographs. The authors established an S-line tilt to the right as S-line positive (S-line+, i.e., the UIV being to the right of the LIV) and compared S-line+ and S-line− groups for thoracic apical vertebral translation (T-AVT) and MT Cobb angle preoperatively, early postoperatively, and at final follow-up. The predictors for T-AVT > 20 mm at final follow-up were evaluated as well. T-AVT > 20 mm was defined as a UIMT.
Among the 48 consecutively treated patients, 26 were S-line+ and 22 were S-line−. At preoperative, early postoperative, and final follow-up a minimum of 2 years later, the mean T-AVT was 12.8 mm (range −9.3 to 32.8 mm), 19.6 mm (range −13.0 to 41.0 mm), and 22.8 mm (range −1.9 to 68.7 mm) in the S-line+ group, and 10.8 mm (range −5.1 to 27.3 mm), 16.2 mm (range −11.7 to 42.1 mm), and 11.0 mm (range −6.3 to 26.9 mm) in the S-line− group, respectively. T-AVT in S-line+ patients was significantly larger than that in S-line− patients at the final follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed S-line+ (odds ratio [OR] 23.8, p = 0.003) and preoperative MT Cobb angle (OR 7.9, p = 0.001) to be predictors of a UIMT.
S-line+ was defined as the UIV being to the right of the LIV. T-AVT in the S-line+ group was significantly larger than in the S-line− group at the final follow-up. S-line+ status and larger preoperative MT Cobb angle were independent predictors of a UIMT after SPF for the TL/L curve in patients with Lenke type 5C AIS. Surgeons should consider changing the UIV and/or LIV in patients exhibiting S-line+ during preoperative planning to avoid a possible increase in MT curve and revision surgery.
Tadayoshi Kurita and Yoshiki Nakajima
Shin Oe, Yu Yamato, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Go Yoshida, Sho Kobayashi, Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Yuki Mihara, Hiroki Ushirozako, Tomohiro Yamada, Koichiro Ide, Yuh Watanabe and Yukihiro Matsuyama
Many complications are likely to occur in patients with malnutrition. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is often used when evaluating a patient’s nutritional condition. However, no studies have investigated the association between nutritional status and postoperative medical complications or prognosis by using the PNI in the field of spinal surgery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate postoperative medical complications and prognoses of patients who had undergone adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, according to their preoperative nutritional status.
All patients aged ≥ 40 years who had undergone scheduled ASD surgery in the authors’ hospital between March 2010 and June 2017 were eligible for study inclusion and were divided into groups according to their PNI (< 50, group L; ≥ 50, group H). Medical complications diagnosed within 30 days postoperatively were evaluated; however, surgical site infection and death were evaluated until 1 and 5 years after surgery, respectively.
Among the 285 eligible patients, groups L and H consisted of 118 and 167 patients, whose mean ages were 68.6 and 68.3 years, respectively. There was a significant difference in body mass index (22 vs 24 mg/kg2, respectively, p = 0.000), PNI (46 vs 55, p = 0.000), comorbidity of osteoporosis (50% vs 32%, p = 0.005) and autoimmune disease (13% vs 5%, p = 0.036), medical history of malignant disorder (17% vs 6%, p = 0.007), and medical complications (49% vs 23%, p = 0.000) between groups L and H. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that significant risk factors for postoperative medical complications were male sex (p = 0.000, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.78–6.96), PNI < 50 (p = 0.000, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.69–4.93), and days to ambulation (p = 0.003, OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02–1.09).
Medical complication rates are significantly higher in patients with PNI < 50, those with delayed ambulation, and male patients. In malnourished patients scheduled for ASD surgery, improvement of preoperative nutritional status and postoperative early ambulation are important to avoid medical complications.
Sho Kobayashi, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Kenichi Shinomiya, Shigenori Kawabata, Muneharu Ando, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Takanori Saito, Masahito Takahashi, Zenya Ito, Akio Muramoto, Yasushi Fujiwara, Kazunobu Kida, Kei Yamada, Kanichiro Wada, Naoya Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Satomi and Toshikazu Tani
Although multimodal intraoperative spinal cord monitoring provides greater accuracy, transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potential (TcMEP) monitoring became the gold standard for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. However, there is no definite alarm point for TcMEPs because a multicenter study is lacking. Thus, based on their experience with 48 true-positive cases (that is, a decrease in potentials followed by a new neurological motor deficit postoperatively) encountered between 2007 and 2009, the authors set a 70% decrease in amplitude as the alarm point for TcMEPs.
A total of 959 cases of spinal deformity, spinal cord tumor, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) treated between 2010 and 2012 are included in this prospective multicenter study (18 institutions). These institutions are part of the Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research monitoring working group and the study group on spinal ligament ossification. The authors prospectively analyzed TcMEP variability and pre- and postoperative motor deficits. A 70% decrease in amplitude was designated as the alarm point.
There were only 2 false-negative cases, which occurred during surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors. This new alarm criterion provided high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring and favorable accuracy, except in cases of intramedullary spinal cord tumor.
This study is the first prospective multicenter study to investigate the alarm point of TcMEPs. The authors recommend the designation of an alarm point of a 70% decrease in amplitude for routine spinal cord monitoring, particularly during surgery for spinal deformity, OPLL, and extramedullary spinal cord tumor.