Chondrosarcomas of the skull base are malignant tumors for which surgery is the primary therapeutic option. Gross-total resection has been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with these tumors. Chondrosarcomas arising from the petroclival synchondrosis harbor particularly unique anatomical considerations that have long been a barrier to achieving such a resection. Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches have been recently used to gain improved access to such lesions; however, these approaches have classically relied on a medial to lateral transclival trajectory, which provides limited exposure for complete resection of lateral disease. In this paper the authors describe an endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid transnasopharyngeal approach that provides comprehensive access to the petroclival region through dissection of the eustachian tube with resection of the cartilaginous torus tubarius. Of note, the authors have previously demonstrated the superior outcomes and validity of this approach relative to other cranial base techniques for petroclival chondrosarcomas. Surgical outcomes in 5 cases of chondrosarcoma without medial extension are detailed. Gross-total resection was achieved in 4 of 5 patients. Postoperative complications included transient palatal numbness in all patients and eustachian tube dysfunction due to the approach. With tympanostomy tube placement, no patient had persistent hearing loss. Overall, this approach appears to be a safe and effective technique for resection of petroclival chondrosarcomas.
Gautam U. Mehta, Franco DeMonte, Shirley Y. Su, Michael E. Kupferman, Ehab Y. Hanna and Shaan M. Raza
Moran Amit, Diana Bell, Patrick J. Hunt, Ehab Hanna, Shirley Y. Su, Michael Kupferman, Mohamed Aashiq, Hideaki Takahashi, Paul W. Gidley, Marc-Elie Nader, Franco DeMonte and Shaan M. Raza
Infratemporal fossa (ITF) tumors are unique in histological characteristics and difficult to treat. Predictors of patient outcomes in this context are not known. The objective of this study was to identify independent predictors of outcome and to characterize patterns of failure in patients with ITF carcinoma.
All patients who had been surgically treated for anterolateral skull base malignancy between 1999 and 2017 at the authors’ institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, preoperative performance status, tumor stage, tumor characteristics, treatment modalities, and pathological data were collected. Primary outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and local progression-free survival (LPFS) rates. Overall survival (OS) and patterns of progression were secondary outcomes.
Forty ITF malignancies with skull base involvement were classified as carcinoma. Negative margins were achieved in 23 patients (58%). Median DSS and LPFS were 32 and 12 months, respectively. Five-year DSS and OS rates were 55% and 36%, respectively. The 5-year LPFS rate was 69%. The 5-year overall PFS rate was 53%. Disease recurrence was noted in 28% of patients. Age, preoperative performance status, and margin status were statistically significant prognostic factors for DSS. Lower preoperative performance status and positive surgical margins increased the probability of local recurrence.
The ability to achieve negative margins was significantly associated with improved tumor control rates and DSS. Cranial base surgical approaches must be considered in multimodal treatment regimens for anterolateral skull base carcinomas.
Jack Phan, Courtney Pollard III, Paul D. Brown, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Adam S. Garden, David I. Rosenthal, Clifton D. Fuller, Steven J. Frank, G. Brandon Gunn, William H. Morrison, Jennifer C. Ho, Jing Li, Amol J. Ghia, James N. Yang, Dershan Luo, He C. Wang, Shirley Y. Su, Shaan M. Raza, Paul W. Gidley, Ehab Y. Hanna and Franco DeMonte
The objective of this study was to assess outcomes after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) re-irradiation for palliation of patients with trigeminal pain secondary to recurrent malignant skull base tumors.
From 2009 to 2016, 26 patients who had previously undergone radiation treatment to the head and neck received GKRS for palliation of trigeminal neuropathic pain secondary to recurrence of malignant skull base tumors. Twenty-two patients received single-fraction GKRS to a median dose of 17 Gy (range 15–20 Gy) prescribed to the 50% isodose line (range 43%–55%). Four patients received fractionated Gamma Knife Extend therapy to a median dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions (range 21–27 Gy) prescribed to the 50% isodose line (range 45%–50%). Those with at least a 3-month follow-up were assessed for symptom palliation. Self-reported pain was evaluated by the numeric rating scale (NRS) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory–Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) pain score. Frequency of as-needed (PRN) analgesic use and opioid requirement were also assessed. Baseline opioid dose was reported as a fentanyl-equivalent dose (FED) and PRN for breakthrough pain use as oral morphine-equivalent dose (OMED). The chi-square and Student t-tests were used to determine differences before and after GKRS.
Seven patients (29%) were excluded due to local disease progression. Two experienced progression at the first follow-up, and 5 had local recurrence from disease outside the GKRS volume. Nineteen patients were assessed for symptom palliation with a median follow-up duration of 10.4 months (range 3.0–34.4 months). At 3 months after GKRS, the NRS scores (n = 19) decreased from 4.65 ± 3.45 to 1.47 ± 2.11 (p < 0.001); MDASI-HN pain scores (n = 13) decreased from 5.02 ± 1.68 to 2.02 ± 1.54 (p < 0.01); scheduled FED (n = 19) decreased from 62.4 ± 102.1 to 27.9 ± 45.5 mcg/hr (p < 0.01); PRN OMED (n = 19) decreased from 43.9 ± 77.5 to 10.9 ± 20.8 mg/day (p = 0.02); and frequency of any PRN analgesic use (n = 19) decreased from 0.49 ± 0.55 to 1.33 ± 0.90 per day (p = 0.08). At 6 months after GKRS, 9 (56%) of 16 patients reported being pain free (NRS score 0), with 6 (67%) of the 9 being both pain free and not requiring analgesic medications. One patient treated early in our experience developed a temporary increase in trigeminal pain 3–4 days after GKRS requiring hospitalization. All subsequently treated patients were given a single dose of intravenous steroids immediately after GKRS followed by a 2–3-week oral steroid taper. No further cases of increased or new pain after treatment were observed after this intervention.
GKRS for palliation of trigeminal pain secondary to recurrent malignant skull base tumors demonstrated a significant decrease in patient-reported pain and opioid requirement. Additional patients and a longer follow-up duration are needed to assess durability of symptom relief and local control.