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Kiyoyuki Yanaka, Kotoo Meguro, Kiyoshi Narushima, Shingo Takano, Mikio Doi and Tadao Nose

✓ The authors describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with clinical onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was found to have a small aneurysm arising from the distal portion of a basal perforating branch of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), lying within a cavum septi pellucidi. Neuroimaging demonstrated a hematoma within the cavum septi pellucidi and the aneurysm was resected via a transcallosal approach guided by an intraoperative portable digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system. The origin of the aneurysm was presumed to be idiopathic. This report is the first to describe an aneurysm of a basal perforating artery arising from the ACA that resulted in an intracaval hematoma. When approaching small vascular lesions during surgery, intraoperative DSA is the method of choice to identify the precise trajectory and distance to the lesions.

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Hiroyoshi Kino, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Shuho Tanaka, Takuma Hara, Hidetaka Miyamoto, Noriaki Sakamoto, Shingo Takano, Tomohiko Masumoto, Masanari Shiigai, Eiichi Ishikawa and Akira Matsumura

OBJECTIVE

Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC) is a benign cystic lesion with a relatively high incidence of local recurrence that occasionally requires repeat surgery. To prevent recurrence, simple cyst fenestration and drainage of the cyst contents to the sphenoid sinus is recommended, but it occasionally recurs. The authors postulated that obstruction of fenestration is a main cause of recurrence, and they developed a method, named the “mucosa coupling method (MC method),” that maintains persistent drainage. In this method, the RCC epithelium and the mucosa of the sphenoid sinus are connected, which promotes re-epithelialization between the two epithelia, maintaining persistent drainage. The outcome of this method was compared with that of conventional cyst fenestration.

METHODS

In a consecutive series of 40 patients with RCC, the surgical strategy was changed during the study period: from December 2009 to September 2014 (the conventional period), 24 patients were scheduled to be treated using the conventional fenestration method, whereas from September 2014 to September 2017 (the MC period), 16 patients were scheduled to be treated using the MC method. However, because of an intraoperative CSF leak, the fenestration was closed during surgery in 3 patients in the conventional period and 2 in the MC period; therefore, these 5 patients were excluded from the analysis. Twenty-one patients treated with the conventional fenestration method (conventional group) and 14 patients treated with the MC method (MC group) were analyzed. All patients regularly underwent MRI after surgery to detect reaccumulation of cyst contents. The rate of reaccumulation with and without reoperation, visual outcomes, endocrinological outcomes, and postoperative complications were compared between these two groups.

RESULTS

The median follow-up period in all 35 patients was 48.0 months (range 1–96 months), 54.0 months (range 1–96 months) in the conventional group and 35.5 months (range 12–51 months) in the MC group. No reaccumulation was detected on MRI in the 14 patients in the MC group, whereas it was noted in 9 (42.9%) of 21 patients in the conventional group, and 2 of these 9 patients required repeat surgery. There were no significant differences in visual and endocrinological outcomes and complications between these two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

The MC method for RCC is effective for preventing obstruction of cyst fenestration, which contributes to preventing cyst reaccumulation. Furthermore, this method is equivalent to the conventional fenestration method in terms of visual and endocrinological outcomes and the complication rate.

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Yosuke Masuda, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Eiichi Ishikawa, Masahide Matsuda, Tomohiko Masumoto, Takashi Hiyama, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Hidehiro Kohzuki, Shingo Takano and Akira Matsumura

OBJECTIVE

MRI scans obtained within 48–72 hours (early postoperative MRI [epMRI]), prior to any postoperative reactive changes, are recommended for the accurate assessment of the extent of resection (EOR) after glioma surgery. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables ischemic lesions to be detected and distinguished from the residual tumor. Prior studies, however, revealed that postoperative reactive changes were often present, even in epMRI. Although intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is widely used to maximize safe resection during glioma surgery, it is unclear whether iMRI is superior to epMRI when evaluating the EOR, because it theoretically shows fewer postoperative reactive changes. In addition, the ability to detect ischemic lesions using iMRI has not been investigated.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data in 30 patients with glioma (22 and 8 patients with enhancing and nonenhancing lesions, respectively) who underwent tumor resection. These patients had received preoperative MRI within 24 hours prior to surgery, postresection radiological evaluation with iMRI during surgery, and epMRI within 24 hours after surgery, with all neuroimaging performed using identical 1.5T MRI scanners. The authors compared iMRI or epMRI with preoperative MRI, and defined a postoperative reactive change as a new postoperative enhancement or T2 high-intensity area (HIA), if this lesion was outside of the preoperative original tumor location. In addition, postoperative ischemia was evaluated on DWI. The iMRI and epMRI findings were compared in terms of 1) postoperative reactive changes, 2) evaluation of the EOR, and 3) presence of ischemic lesion on DWI.

RESULTS

In patients with enhancing lesions, a new enhancement was seen in 8 of 22 patients (36.4%) on iMRI and in 12 of 22 patients (54.5%) on epMRI. In patients with nonenhancing lesions, a new T2 HIA was seen in 4 of 8 patients (50.0%) on iMRI and in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%) on epMRI. A discrepancy between the EOR measured on iMRI and epMRI was noted in 5 of the 22 patients (22.7%) with enhancing lesions, and in 3 of the 8 patients (37.5%) with nonenhancing lesions. The occurrence of ischemic lesions on DWI was found in 5 of 30 patients (16.7%) on iMRI, whereas it was found in 16 of 30 patients (53.3%) on epMRI (p = 0.003); ischemic lesions were underestimated on iMRI in 11 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, given the lower incidence of postoperative reactive changes on iMRI, it was superior to epMRI in evaluating the EOR in patients with glioma, both with enhancing and nonenhancing lesions. However, because ischemic lesions can be overlooked on iMRI, the authors recommend only the additional DWI scan during the early postoperative period. Clinicians need to be mindful about not overestimating the presence of residual tumor on epMRI due to the high incidence of postoperative reactive changes.

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Takuma Hara, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Shingo Takano, Hiroyoshi Kino, Eiichi Ishikawa, Shuho Tanaka, Hidetaka Miyamoto, Noriaki Sakamoto, Keiichiro Hattori, Mamiko Sakata-Yanagimoto, Shigeru Chiba, Takashi Hiyama, Tomohiko Masumoto and Akira Matsumura

OBJECTIVE

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (adaCP). However, there is no evidence that the CTNNB1 mutation activates the target gene of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and it is unknown whether it affects the tumorigenesis of adaCP. To assess the effect of the CTNNB1 mutation of adaCP, the authors analyzed the correlation between the mutation and clinical, radiological, pathological, and biological findings.

METHODS

Between 2003 and 2015, 42 patients (24 male and 18 female, median age 42 years) with either papillary craniopharyngioma (papCP) or adaCP underwent tumor resection at the authors’ institution. BRAF V600E and CTNNB1 in papCP and adaCP samples were sequenced by next-generation sequencing and the Sanger method, and mRNA expression levels of Axin2 and BMP4 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Axin2, BMP4, β-catenin, and BRAF expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Other data were collected from clinical reports.

RESULTS

The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in all 10 cases of papCP (100%). CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations were detected in 21 of 31 (68%) cases of adaCP, excluding 1 case for which there were no available sequence data. The mRNA expression level of Axin2 was significantly higher in adaCPs with a CTNNB1 mutation than in those without (p < 0.05). The immunohistochemical findings of Axin2 and BMP4 did not correlate with CTNNB1 mutation positivity. When patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy were excluded, progression-free survival was shorter in the mutation-positive group than in the mutation-negative group (log-rank test, p = 0.031). Examination of clinical characteristics and immunohistochemical findings of adaCPs showed that there was no significant correlation between CTNNB1 mutation positivity and age, sex, tumor volume, gross-total resection, optic tract edema, calcification, or T1 signal intensity of cyst fluid on MRI, β-catenin, and MIB-1 index.

CONCLUSIONS

These results raise the possibility that the CTNNB1 mutation in adaCP may be associated with disease recurrence, and genes related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway might represent a therapeutic target.

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Nakamasa Hayashi, Hisayuki Murai, Shoichiro Ishihara, Takayuki Kitamura, Tamotsu Miki, Tomoru Miwa, Masakazu Miyajima, Kenichi Nishiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Shigeki Ono, Tomonari Suzuki, Shingo Takano, Isao Date, Naokatsu Saeki and Shunro Endo

Object

The authors report their investigation on the current status of neuroendoscopic biopsy for ventricular and paraventricular tumors as well as treatment for associated hydrocephalus in Japan.

Methods

Patients who had undergone therapeutic neuroendoscopy between 2005 and 2009 were included in this study. The main items examined were age; sex; localization of tumor; pathological diagnosis using biopsy; the presence, treatment, and efficacy of treatment of associated hydrocephalus; perioperative complications; activities of daily living (ADL) before and after therapeutic neuroendoscopy; and the presence of dissemination during the postoperative course.

Results

Seven hundred fourteen patients from 123 sites (462 male and 252 female patients, mean age 33.3 years) were enrolled. Localization of the tumor was mainly classified into the lateral ventricle in 91 patients, the third ventricle in 339, the fourth ventricle in 18, the suprasellar region in 75, and other paraventricular areas in 191 patients. The most commonly observed tumors were germ cell tumors in the third ventricle (177 cases [39%]), cystic lesions in the suprasellar region (56 cases [75%]), and astrocytic tumors in the thalamus-basal ganglia (71 cases [38%]). Although 641 (92.8%) of 691 patients could receive neuroendoscopic diagnosis using biopsy, the diagnosis obtained with endoscopic biopsy differed from the final diagnosis based on subsequent craniotomy in 18 patients and clinical course in 3 patients. Of these 21 patients, 7 had astrocytic tumors, 4 had pineal tumors, 6 had germ cell tumors, and 4 had other tumors. The final diagnostic accuracy rate was 89.7%. Associated hydrocephalus was observed in 517 patients (72.4%), of whom 316 and 39 underwent third ventriculostomy and fenestration of the septum, respectively. The response rates were 96.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Third ventriculostomy was required for recurrence of hydrocephalus in 41 patients (13.0%), and the long-term response rate was therefore 83.2% (263 of 316 patients). Perioperative complications other than fever, such as new onset of or progressive hydrocephalus, infection due to CSF leakage, and bleeding in the ventricle or tumor, were found in 81 patients (11.3%). The median Karnofsky Performance Scale score before endoscopic surgery was 80, but it increased to 90 after surgery. The score was thus significantly increased after surgery (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Activities of daily living after surgery decreased due to perioperative complications in 15 patients (2.1%). The incidence of new dissemination after endoscopic biopsy was 6.8% and not high compared with routine surgical treatment.

Conclusions

The authors concluded that neuroendoscopic diagnosis using biopsy for ventricular and paraventricular tumors is adequately accurate and safe. It was demonstrated that endoscopic procedures play important roles not only in the treatment of hydrocephalus associated with intra- and paraventricular tumors but also in significantly improving ADL. Furthermore, the long-term outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy was clearly favorable.