Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shervin R. Dashti x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, Shenandoah Robinson, Mark Rodgers and Alan R. Cohen

✓Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas in multiple organs including the brain, skin, eye, kidney, and heart. Neurological features include seizures and mental retardation. Cortical tubers and subependymal nodules are the characteristic intracranial lesions of tuberous sclerosis. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, typically located adjacent to the foramen of Monro, can enlarge and cause symptomatic ventricular obstruction.

The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old boy with a history of tuberous sclerosis and retinal lesions who presented with an enlarging enhancing pineal region mass. Via an infratentorial supracerebellar approach, the mass was removed using both the operative microscope and a rigid neuroendoscope. Pathological examination showed a giant cell astrocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of tuberous sclerosis associated with a giant cell astrocytoma of the pineal region. Diagnostic considerations are discussed.

Full access

Jonathan P. Miller, Steven C. Fulop, Shervin R. Dashti, Shenandoah Robinson and Alan R. Cohen

Object

Tapping of a suspected malfunctioning ventriculoperitoneal shunt is usually easy, sometimes informative, but also potentially misleading. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a shunt evaluation protocol that does not involve direct shunt tapping except in rare and specific cases.

Methods

The authors adopted a protocol for shunt evaluation that involves shunt tapping only in selected cases of suspected infection or in patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus and equivocal computed tomography (CT) findings of shunt infection. They then reviewed the clinical characteristics and surgical findings in 373 consecutive assessments of 155 pediatric patients who were evaluated for shunt malfunction and/or infection by using this protocol between January 2003 and December 2005.

Results

Mental status change and headache were the symptoms most concordant with shunt malfunction, but no symptom had a predictive value much better than 50%. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated enlarged ventricles in 72 of 126 cases of shunt revision. Among those with obstruction but without remarkable CT changes, 8 patients had evidence of distal obstruction on x-ray “shunt series” consisting of skull, chest, and abdominal radiographs, and 5 had obvious symptoms that rendered further testing unnecessary; 38 cases of obstruction were diagnosed based on elevated opening pressure on lumbar puncture (mean 34.7 cm H2O). A shunt tap was required in only 8 cases (2%).

Conclusions

The authors have shown that it is possible to evaluate the majority of ventricular shunt malfunctions without tapping the device. Because it is possible to diagnose shunt obstruction correctly by other means, the shunt tap may not be obligatory as a routine test of the device's patency.

Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, Alan Hoffer, Yin C. Hu and Warren R. Selman

✓Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically occult neurovascular lesions that consist of enlarged vascular channels without intervening normal parenchyma. Cavernous malformations can occur as sporadic or auto-somal-dominant inherited conditions. Approximately 50% of Hispanic patients with cerebral CMs have the familial form, compared with 10 to 20% of Caucasian patients. There is no difference in the pathological findings or presentation in the sporadic and familial forms. To date, familial CMs have been attributed to mutations at three different loci: CCM1 on 7q21.2, CCM2 on 7p15-p13, or CCM3 on 3q25.2-q27. The authors summarize the current understanding of the molecular events underlying familial CMs.

Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, David Fiorella, Robert F. Spetzler, Elisa Beres, Cameron G. McDougall and Felipe C. Albuquerque

Cavernous malformations (CMs) or hemangiomas arising from within the dural sinuses are rare entities that differ from their parenchymal counterparts in that they are highly vascular lesions. While parenchymal CMs are typically angiographically occult, intrasinus malformations may have large, dural-based arterial feeding vessels that are amenable to preoperative embolization. The novel liquid embolic Onyx (ev3, Inc.) is an ideal agent for the embolization of these lesions. The authors present the first known case of a giant intrasinus CM embolized with Onyx before gross-total resection.

The authors report the case of a 9-year-old boy with brief apneic episodes in whom MR imaging revealed a giant CM arising from within the right transverse and sigmoid sinuses and infiltrating the right tentorium cerebelli. At another institution, the patient had undergone 1 prior embolization and 2 unsuccessful attempts at resection. Both surgeries had been complicated by massive blood loss and were aborted.

Under the authors' care, the patient underwent preoperative transarterial embolization with Onyx during which a substantial volume of the mass lesion was filled with embolisate. Subsequently, complete circumferential excision of the mass from the tentorium was accomplished with minimal intraoperative blood loss.

Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, Aaron Spalding, Rob J. Kadner, Tom Yao, Arooshi Kumar, David A. Sun and Renato LaRocca

Radiation necrosis (RN) is a serious complication that can occur in up to 10% of brain radiotherapy cases, with the incidence dependent on both dose and brain location. Available medical treatment for RN includes steroids, vitamin E, pentoxifylline, and hyperbaric oxygen. In a significant number of patients, however, RN is medically refractory and the patients experience progressive neurological decline, disabling headaches, and decreased quality of life.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a known mediator of cerebral edema in RN. Recent reports have shown successful treatment of RN with intravenous bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody for VEGF. Bevacizumab, however, is associated with significant systemic complications including sinus thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, gastrointestinal tract perforation, wound dehiscence, and severe hypertension. Using lower drug doses may decrease systemic exposure and reduce complication rates. By using an intraarterial route for drug administration following blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), the authors aim to lower the bevacizumab dose while increasing target delivery.

In the present report, the authors present the cases of 2 pediatric patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations, who presented with medically intractable RN following stereotactic radiosurgery. They received a single intraarterial infusion of 2.5 mg/kg bevacizumab after hyperosmotic BBBD.

At mean follow-up duration of 8.5 months, the patients had significant and durable clinical and radiographic response. Both patients experienced resolution of their previously intractable headaches and reversal of cushingoid features as they were successfully weaned off steroids. One of the patients regained significant motor strength. There was an associated greater than 70% reduction in cerebral edema.

Intraarterial administration of a single low dose of bevacizumab after BBBD was safe and resulted in durable clinical and radiographic improvements at concentrations well below those required for the typical systemic intravenous route. Advantages over the intravenous route may include higher concentration of drug delivery to the affected brain, decreased systemic toxicity, and a significantly lower cost.

Full access

W. Jerry Oakes

Full access

Felipe C. Albuquerque, Yin C. Hu, Shervin R. Dashti, Adib A. Abla, Justin C. Clark, Brian Alkire, Nicholas Theodore and Cameron G. McDougall

Object

Chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine is a known cause of craniocervical arterial dissections. In this paper, the authors describe the patterns of arterial injury after chiropractic manipulation and their management in the modern endovascular era.

Methods

A prospectively maintained endovascular database was reviewed to identify patients presenting with craniocervical arterial dissections after chiropractic manipulation. Factors assessed included time to symptomatic presentation, location of the injured arterial segment, neurological symptoms, endovascular treatment, surgical treatment, clinical outcome, and radiographic follow-up.

Results

Thirteen patients (8 women and 5 men, mean age 44 years, range 30–73 years) presented with neurological deficits, head and neck pain, or both, typically within hours or days of chiropractic manipulation. Arterial dissections were identified along the entire course of the vertebral artery, including the origin through the V4 segment. Three patients had vertebral artery dissections that continued rostrally to involve the basilar artery. Two patients had dissections of the internal carotid artery (ICA): 1 involved the cervical ICA and 1 involved the petrocavernous ICA. Stenting was performed in 5 cases, and thrombolysis of the basilar artery was performed in 1 case. Three patients underwent emergency cerebellar decompression because of impending herniation. Six patients were treated with medication alone, including either anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients (mean 19 months). Three patients had permanent neurological deficits, and 1 died of a massive cerebellar stroke. The remaining 9 patients recovered completely. Of the 12 patients who survived, radiographic follow-up was obtained in all but 1 of the most recently treated patients (mean 12 months). All stents were widely patent at follow-up.

Conclusions

Chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine can produce dissections involving the cervical and cranial segments of the vertebral and carotid arteries. These injuries can be severe, requiring endovascular stenting and cranial surgery. In this patient series, a significant percentage (31%, 4/13) of patients were left permanently disabled or died as a result of their arterial injuries.

Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, Humain Baharvahdat, Robert F. Spetzler, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Chang, Michael F. Stiefel, Min S. Park and Nicholas C. Bambakidis

Object

Postoperative infection after cranial surgery is a serious complication that requires immediate recognition and treatment. In certain cases such as postoperative meningitis, the patient can be treated with antibiotics only. In cases that involve a bone flap infection, subdural empyema, or cerebral abscess, however, reoperation is often needed. There has been significant disagreement regarding the incidence of postoperative central nervous system (CNS) infections following cranial surgery. In this paper the authors' goal was to perform a retrospective review of the incidence of CNS infection after cranial surgery at their institution. They focused their review on those patients who required repeated surgery to treat the infection.

Methods

The authors reviewed the medical records and imaging studies in all patients who underwent a craniotomy or stereotactic drainage for CNS infection over the past 10 years. Subgroup analysis was then performed in patients whose infection was a result of a previous cranial operation to determine the incidence, factors associated with infection, and the type of infectious organism. Patients treated nonoperatively (that is, those who received intravenous antibiotics for postoperative meningitis or cellulitis) were not included. Patients treated for wound infection without intracranial pus were also not included.

Results

During the study period from January 1997 through December 2007, ~ 16,540 cranial surgeries were performed by 25 neurosurgeons. These included elective as well as emergency and trauma cases. Of these cases 82 (0.5%) were performed to treat postoperative infection in 50 patients. All 50 patients underwent their original surgery at the authors' institution. The median age was 51 years (range 2–74 years). There were 26 male and 24 female patients.

The most common offending organism was methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which was found in 10 of 50 patients. Gram-negative rods were found in 15 patients. Multiple organisms were identified in specimens obtained in 5 patients. Six patients had negative cultures. Most craniotomies leading to subsequent infection were performed for tumors or other mass lesions (23 of 50 patients), followed by craniotomies for hemorrhage and vascular lesions. Almost half of the patients underwent > 1 cranial operation before presenting with infection.

Conclusions

Postoperative infection after cranial surgery is an important phenomenon that needs immediate recognition. Even with strict adherence to sterile techniques and administration of antibiotic prophylaxis, a small percentage of these patients will develop an infection severe enough to require reoperation.

Full access

Shervin R. Dashti, Humain Baharvahdat, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Chang, Michael F. Stiefel, Min S. Park, Robert F. Spetzler and Nicholas C. Bambakidis

✓ Brain abscess is a rare but very dangerous neurosurgical lesion. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgical evacuation are the hallmarks of therapy. Brain abscess following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke is a rare entity. These cases are often preceded by episodes of bacteremia, sepsis, and local infection. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a cerebral abscess at the site of a recent intraparenchymal hemorrhage.