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Eric W. Sherburn, John E. Wanebo, Paul Kim, Sheng-Kwei Song, Michael R. Chicoine, and Thomas A. Woolsey

Object. Surgical treatment of gliomas is difficult because they are invasive. Invasion of essential cortex often limits or precludes surgical resection. A tumor model was developed in which the rodent whisker barrel cortex was used to examine how gliomas affect cortical function and structure.

Methods. Both DBT (mouse) and C6 (rat) glioma cell lines were grown in culture and labeled with the fluorescent marker Dil in vitro. Labeled tumor cells were then injected into the whisker barrel cortex of adult mice and rats. Neurological assessments were made daily and magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained. Animals were killed by perfusion 6 to 14 days after injection, and histological sections were prepared and studied.

Tumors were found in all 20 rats and 10 mice that had been injected with the C6 and DBT cell lines, respectively. The animal cells had been labeled with Dil in vitro, and all in vivo tumors proved to be Dil positive. The MR images revealed the tumor locations and serial MR images demonstrated tumor growth. Histological evaluation confirmed the location of the tumor and the disruption of barrel cortex architecture.

Conclusions. Both DBT and C6 glioma cell lines can be used to generate malignant glial tumors reproducibly in the whisker barrel cortex. Fluorescent labeling and cytochrome oxidase staining permit visualization of tumor growth patterns, which disrupt the barrel cortex by microscopic invasion and by gross tissue deformation. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the anatomical extension of these tumors in live rodents. Using this model for further studies on the effects of malignant glioma growth on functional cerebral cortex should advance our understanding of the neurological issues and management of patients with these tumors.

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Eric W. Sherburn, John E. Wanebo, Paul Kim, Sheng-Kwei Song, Michael R. Chicoine, and Thomas A. Woolsey

Object

Surgical treatment of gliomas is difficult because they are invasive. Invasion of essential cortex often limits or precludes surgical resection. A tumor model was developed in which the rodent whisker barrel cortex was used to examine how gliomas affect cortical function and structure.

Methods

Both DBT (mouse) and C6 (rat) glioma cell lines were grown in culture and labeled with the fluorescent marker Dil in vitro. Labeled tumor cells were then injected into the whisker barrel cortex of adult mice and rats. Neurological assessments were made daily and magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained. Animals were killed by perfusion 6 to 14 days after injection, and histological sections were prepared and studied.

Tumors were found in all 20 rats and 10 mice that had been injected with the C6 and DBT cell lines, respectively. The animal cells had been labeled with Dil in vitro, and all in vivo tumors proved to be Dil positive. The MR images revealed the tumor locations and serial MR images demonstrated tumor growth. Histological evaluation confirmed the location of the tumor and the disruption of barrel cortex architecture.

Conclusions

Both DBT and C6 glioma cell lines can be used to generate malignant glial tumors reproducibly in the whisker barrel cortex. Fluorescent labeling and cytochrome oxidase staining permit visualization of tumor growth patterns, which disrupt the barrel cortex by microscopic invasion and by gross tissue deformation. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the anatomical extension of these tumors in live rodents. Using this model for further studies on the effects of malignant glioma growth on functional cerebral cortex should advance our understanding of the neurological issues and management of patients with these tumors.

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Dinal Jayasekera, Justin K. Zhang, Jacob Blum, Rachel Jakes, Peng Sun, Saad Javeed, Jacob K. Greenberg, Sheng-Kwei Song, and Wilson Z. Ray

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of chronic spinal cord injury, a significant public health problem. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique widely used to assess CNS tissue pathology and is increasingly used in CSM. However, DTI lacks the needed accuracy, precision, and recall to image pathologies of spinal cord injury as the disease progresses. Thus, the authors used diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to delineate white matter injury more accurately in the setting of spinal cord compression. It was hypothesized that the profiles of multiple DBSI metrics can serve as imaging outcome predictors to accurately predict a patient’s response to therapy and his or her long-term prognosis. This hypothesis was tested by using DBSI metrics as input features in a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm.

METHODS

Fifty patients with CSM and 20 healthy controls were recruited to receive diffusion-weighted MRI examinations. All spinal cord white matter was identified as the region of interest (ROI). DBSI and DTI metrics were extracted from all voxels in the ROI and the median value of each patient was used in analyses. An SVM with optimized hyperparameters was trained using clinical and imaging metrics separately and collectively to predict patient outcomes. Patient outcomes were determined by calculating changes between pre- and postoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale scores.

RESULTS

Accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score were reported for each SVM iteration. The highest performance was observed when a combination of clinical and DBSI metrics was used to train an SVM. When assessing patient outcomes using mJOA scale scores, the SVM trained with clinical and DBSI metrics achieved accuracy and an area under the curve of 88.1% and 0.95, compared with 66.7% and 0.65, respectively, when clinical and DTI metrics were used together.

CONCLUSIONS

The accuracy and efficacy of the SVM incorporating clinical and DBSI metrics show promise for clinical applications in predicting patient outcomes. These results suggest that DBSI metrics, along with the clinical presentation, could serve as a surrogate in prognosticating outcomes of patients with CSM.