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Shaohui He, Yuduo Xu, Jialin Li, Yue Zhang, Haifeng Wei and Jianru Xiao

OBJECTIVE

Leiomyogenic tumor of the spine is rare with limited published information. Here, the authors report the clinical features and long-term surgical outcomes and investigate the prognostic factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS).

METHODS

Twelve patients presented to the authors’ institution for surgical treatment from January 2005 to December 2018. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed, and the DFS rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to identify the potential prognostic factors, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 49.7 ± 12.9 years (range 22–73 years). Four patients underwent marginal en bloc resection, and 8 patients underwent conventional piecemeal resection. Pathological diagnosis revealed leiomyosarcoma in 9 patients and leiomyoma in 3 patients. Three patients had tumor recurrence at a mean follow-up of 10.4 months (range 7.0–15.0 months), while 4 developed metastases at an average of 13.8 months (range 5.5–21.3 months) postoperatively. During the mean follow-up of 33.7 months (range 9.6–78.5 months), the estimated 1- and 5-year DFS rates were 66.7% and 38.2%, respectively. Albumin loss > 20 g/L after surgery, Ki-67 positivity > 10%, and piecemeal resection were correlated with worse DFS.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical management of spinal leiomyogenic tumors is challenging due to the high rate of recurrence and metastases. En bloc resection should be performed in eligible patients. Albumin loss > 20 g/L and the Ki-67 index may be independent factors affecting prognosis.

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Shaohui He, Chen Ye, Nanzhe Zhong, Minglei Yang, Xinghai Yang and Jianru Xiao

OBJECTIVE

The surgical treatment of an upper cervical spinal tumor (UCST) at C1–2/C1–3 is challenging due to anterior exposure and reconstruction. Limited information has been published concerning the effective approach and reconstruction for an anterior procedure after C1–2/C1–3 UCST resection. The authors attempted to introduce a novel, customized, anterior craniocervical reconstruction between the occipital condyles and inferior vertebrae through a modified high-cervical retropharyngeal approach (mHCRA) in addressing C1–2/C1–3 spinal tumors.

METHODS

Seven consecutive patients underwent 2-stage UCST resection with circumferential reconstruction. Posterior decompression and occiput-cervical instrumentation was conducted at the stage 1 operation, and anterior craniocervical reconstruction using a 3D-printed implant was performed between the occipital condyles and inferior vertebrae via an mHCRA. The clinical characteristics, perioperative complications, and radiological outcomes were reviewed, and the rationale for anterior craniocervical reconstruction was also clarified.

RESULTS

The mean age of the 7 patients in the study was 47.6 ± 19.0 years (range 12–72 years) when referred to the authors’ center. Six patients (85.7%) had recurrent tumor status, and the interval from primary to recurrence status was 53.0 ± 33.7 months (range 24–105 months). Four patients (57.1%) were diagnosed with a spinal tumor involving C1–3, and 3 patients (42.9%) with a C1–2 tumor. For the anterior procedure, the mean surgical duration and average blood loss were 4.1 ± 0.9 hours (range 3.0–6.0 hours) and 558.3 ± 400.5 ml (range 100–1300 ml), respectively. No severe perioperative complications occurred, except 1 patient with transient dysphagia. The mean pre- and postoperative visual analog scale scores were 8.0 ± 0.8 (range 7–9) and 2.4 ± 0.5 (range 2.0–3.0; p < 0.001), respectively, and the mean improvement rate of cervical spinal cord function was 54.7% ± 13.8% (range 42.9%–83.3%) based on the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale score (p < 0.001). Circumferential instrumentation was in good position and no evidence of disease was found at the mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range 7.3–24.2 months).

CONCLUSIONS

The mHCRA provides optimal access to the surgical field at the C0–3 level. Customized anterior craniocervical fixation between the occipital condyles and inferior vertebrae can be feasible and effective in managing anterior reconstruction after UCST resection.