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Grant W. Mallory, Shanna Fang, Caterina Giannini, Jamie J. Van Gompel and Ian F. Parney

Object

Carcinoid tumors are rare and have generally been regarded as indolent neoplasms. Systemic disease is often incurable; however, patients may live years with this disease. Furthermore, metastatic brain lesions are extremely uncommon. As such, few series have examined outcomes and prognostic factors in those with brain involvement.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent primary treatment at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, for metastatic carcinoid tumors to the brain between 1986 and 2011. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Cox proportional hazards were used to determine predictors of survival.

Results

Fifteen patients underwent primary treatment for metastatic carcinoid tumors to the brain between 1986 and 2011. Their mean age was 58 ± 12 years. Eighty percent (n = 12) of patients underwent surgery, whereas 2 received stereotactic radiosurgery and 1 had whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) as the primary treatment. The median follow-up duration was 19 months (maximum 124 months). Systemic disease progression occurred in 73% and was the leading cause of death in known cases, while intracranial disease recurred in 40%. The median PFS and OS were 21 and 19 months, respectively. The use of adjuvant WBRT correlated with improved PFS (HR 0.15, CI 0.0074–0.95, p = 0.044). Those who underwent surgery as primary modalities trended toward longer progression-free intervals (p = 0.095), although this did not reach significance.

Conclusions

Metastatic carcinoid disease to the brain appears to have a worse prognosis than that of other extracranial metastases. Although there was a trend toward a survival advantage in patients who underwent surgery and WBRT, further study is needed to establish definitive treatment recommendations.

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Alberto Feletti, Elisabetta Marton, Grazia Marina Mazzucco, Shanna Fang and Pierluigi Longatti

Since children may not be able to complain of progressive reduction in optic acuity, visual assessment in infancy may present practical difficulties. The authors report a case of craniopharyngioma, which led a young child to early blindness before the correct diagnosis could be made. Similar to other reported cases, the authors found that surgery did not substantially modify the preoperative visual deficit. They conclude that minimal improvement in visual acuity can be expected despite successful microsurgical removal of the tumor.

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Ari J. Kane, Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Derick Aranda, Stephen A. Mills, Mandeep Lehil, Shanna Fang and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

The literature, at present, provides limited information about extraventricular neurocytomas (EVNs) and is almost exclusively composed of case reports or small case series. Treatment for EVNs has largely been guided by results from central neurocytoma outcome studies. The authors present an analysis of all reported intracranial EVN cases to establish if tumor histopathological features can substratify EVN into groups with differing prognosis and help guide treatment decisions.

Methods

The authors identified studies reporting histology, treatment modality, and outcomes for patients with intracranial EVN. The rates of recurrence and survival for patients were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Atypical tumors, defined by MIB-1 labeling index exceeding 3% or atypical histological features, were compared with typical tumors, and patients 50 years of age or older were compared with those younger than 50 years of age.

Results

Eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria, and 27% of them had an atypical histology. Typical EVNs had a better prognosis than atypical EVNs after primary treatment, with a 5-year recurrence rate of 36% compared with 68% (p < 0.001), and a 5-year mortality rate of 4% compared with 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Age younger 50 years was associated with a better prognosis than age equal to or greater than 50 years, with a 5-year recurrence rate of 33% and 74%, respectively (p < 0.001), and a 5-year mortality rate of 4% and 52%, respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that atypical EVNs carried significantly increased risk for recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 4.91, p < 0.001) and death (HR 22.91, p < 0.01). Gross-total resection was superior to subtotal resection (STR) alone in tumor control rates for typical EVNs (95% and 68%, p < 0.05), and there was a trend for adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy to benefit STR. There was suggestion of similar trends in patients with atypical EVNs.

Conclusions

There are at least 2 distinct histological subtypes of EVN, with different prognostic significances. Atypia or MIB-1 labeling index greater than 3% is a significant predictor of poor prognosis for EVNs. Complete resection or more aggressive attempts at providing adjuvant therapy following STR appear to improve the prognosis for patients with EVNs. Although the authors' results are informative, there are limitations to their analysis. Given the relatively modest total number of cases reported, as well as the nature of the disaggregated analysis, the authors were not able to use formal meta-analytical methods to limit the impact of between center heterogeneity. Additionally, they were not able to control for individual differences in data analysis and presentation across the different studies included in their analysis.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Isaac Yang, Derick Aranda, Martin J. Rutkowski, Shanna Fang, Steven W. Cheung and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

Outcomes following vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been extensively described; however, complication rates reported in the literature vary markedly. In addition, the majority of reports have focused on outcomes related to cranial nerves (CNs) VII and VIII. The objective of this study was to analyze reported morbidity unrelated to CNs VII and VIII following the resection of VS.

Methods

The authors performed a comprehensive search of the English language literature, identifying and aggregating morbidity and death data from patients who had undergone microsurgical removal of VSs. A subgroup analysis based on surgical approach and tumor size was performed to compare rates of CSF leakage, vascular injury, neurological deficit, and postoperative infection.

Results

One hundred articles met the inclusion criteria, providing data for 32,870 patients. The overall mortality rate was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1–0.3%). Twenty-two percent of patients (95% CI 21–23%) experienced at least 1 surgically attributable complication unrelated to CNs VII or VIII. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 8.5% of patients (95% CI 6.9–10.0%). This rate was markedly increased with the translabyrinthine approach but was not affected by tumor size. Vascular complications, such as ischemic injury or hemorrhage, occurred in 1% of patients (95% CI 0.75–1.2%). Neurological complications occurred in 8.6% of cases (95% CI 7.9–9.3%) and were less likely with the resection of smaller tumors (p < 0.0001) and the use of the translabyrinthine approach (p < 0.0001). Infections occurred in 3.8% of cases (95% CI 3.4–4.3%), and 78% of these infections were meningitis.

Conclusions

This study provides statistically powerful data for practitioners to advise patients about the published risks of surgery for VS unrelated to compromised CNs VII and VIII.

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Ari J. Kane, Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Derick Aranda, Steve A. Mills, Raphael Buencamino, Shanna Fang, Igor J. Barani and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

There is no Class I evidence to guide the appropriate management of esthesioneuroblastoma (EN). Most data currently guiding treatment come from small- or modest-sized series gathered at individual centers that have concluded that surgery with radiotherapy is the preferred treatment. In this study, the authors summarize the published literature on treatment outcomes in patients with EN. The objective was to ascertain what variables predict prognosis in these patients and to determine the relative effect of different therapies.

Methods

The authors identified 205 published studies containing treatment outcomes for surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival of patients who received surgery was compared with that in those who received surgery and radiotherapy. Additionally, Kadish staging was compared with low- and high-grade Hyams criteria to assess for subgroup prognostic significance in survival differences.

Results

Nine hundred fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median follow-up time of 3 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in survival between patients who underwent surgery alone and those who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy at 5 years (78 vs 75%) or 10 years (67 vs 61%, respectively) (p = 0.3). Univariate analysis demonstrated worse survival in cases involving Kadish Grade C tumors, Hyams Grade 3 and 4 tumors, and in patients older than 65 years of age. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Hyams Grade 3 and 4 lesions carried significant risk (proportional hazard = 4.83, p < 0.001) with 5- and 10-year survival of 47 and 31%.

Conclusions

A biopsy should always be obtained in cases suspected of EN because histology is a strong prognostic indicator and will help guide appropriate treatment. Unimodal surgery and combined surgery/radiotherapy appear to be of equivalent efficacy with respect to survival in patients with EN. Chemotherapy should be considered in high-grade EN.

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Waleed Brinjikji, Mariangela Piano, Shanna Fang, Guglielmo Pero, David F. Kallmes, Luca Quilici, Luca Valvassori, Emilio Lozupone, Harry J. Cloft, Edoardo Boccardi and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECT

Flow-diversion treatment has been shown to be associated with high rates of angiographic obliteration; however, the treatment is relatively contraindicated in the acute phase following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as these patients require periprocedural dual antiplatelet therapy. Acute coiling followed by flow diversion has emerged as an intriguing and feasible treatment option for ruptured complex and giant aneurysms. In this study the authors report outcomes and complications of patients with ruptured aneurysms undergoing coiling in the acute phase followed by planned delayed flow diversion.

METHODS

This case series includes patients from 2 institutions. All patients underwent standard endovascular coiling in the acute phase after SAH with the intention and plan to proceed with flow diversion at a later date. Outcomes studied included angiographic occlusion, procedure-related complications, and long-term clinical outcome as measured using the modified Rankin Scale.

RESULTS

A total of 31 patients underwent coiling in the acute phase with the intention to undergo flow diversion at a later date. The mean aneurysm size was 15.8 ± 7.9 mm. Of the 31 patients undergoing coiling, 4 patients could not undergo further flow-diverter therapy: 3 patients (9.7%) died of complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage and 1 patient had permanent morbidity as a result of perioperative ischemic stroke (3.1%). Twenty-seven patients underwent staged placement of flow diverters after adequate recovery. The median time to treatment was 16 weeks. There was one case of aneurysm rebleeding following coil treatment. There were no cases of permanent morbidity or mortality resulting from flow-diverter treatment. Twenty-four patients underwent imaging follow-up; 18 of these patients had aneurysms that were completely or nearly completely occluded (58.1% on an intent-to-treat basis). At last follow-up (mean 18.3 months), 25 patients had mRS scores ≤ 2 (80.6% on an intent-to-treat basis).

CONCLUSIONS

Staged treatment of ruptured complex and giant intracranial aneurysms with coiling in the acute phase and flow-diverter treatment following recovery from SAH is both safe and effective. In this series, no cases of rebleeding occurred during the interval between coiling and flow diversion. This strategy should be considered as a valid option in patients presenting with these challenging ruptured aneurysms.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010