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Kun-Long Hung, Hung-Tsai Liao, and Jing-Shan Huang

Object

The management regimen for depressed skull fractures in infants can be conservative or surgical. The aim of this study was to provide a rational principle of management for simple depressed skull fractures in infants.

Methods

A protocol of nonsurgical treatment for a simple depressed skull fracture was designed for all affected infants during the period from 1985 to 2001. Conservative management was used for those with a depressed fracture measuring less than 5 mm in depth, whereas vacuum extraction was applied for larger and deeper depressions. All of the patients were evaluated for initial results and later outcomes.

Twenty-five infants suffering simple depressed skull fractures were consecutively enrolled. According to our protocol, 11 patients received conservative management by close observation only. Spontaneous restoration of the depression was observed in eight patients within a period of 1 to 6 months. For the remaining 14 patients, vacuum extraction was performed. A negative pressure of 0.3 to 0.8 kg/cm2 (mean 0.49 kg/cm2) was applied for a duration of 20 to 90 seconds (mean 43.6 seconds). All but one patient experienced complete recovery following extraction. The depressions of the four patients that were residual after initial management smoothed out with time. No neurological deficit or later epilepsy was noted in any patient.

Conclusions

Nonsurgical management can be the treatment of choice for infants with simple depressed skull fractures, whereas vacuum extraction is one option for larger and deeper depressions to obtain prompt resolution and relieve major family anxiety, without taking additional risks.

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Chuan-Fu Huang, Hsien-Tang Tu, Wen-Shan Liu, and Long-Yau Lin

Object

The authors report the effects of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) on benign tumor–related trigeminal pain in patients who underwent follow-up for a mean 57.8 months.

Methods

From 1999 to 2004, 21 patients with benign tumor–related trigeminal pain (12 meningiomas and 9 schwannomas) underwent GKS as a primary or repeated treatment. These patients harbored tumors within the radiosurgical target area. For meningiomas, the mean radiosurgical treatment volume was 8.2 ml (range 1.1–21 ml), and the mean radiosurgical tumor margin dose was 12.7 Gy (range 12–15 Gy); for schwannomas, the mean volume was 5.6 ml (range 2–9.2 ml), and the mean marginal dose was 13 Gy (range 11.5–16 Gy). Seven patients underwent retreatment for recurrent or persistent pain; the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve or ganglion was identified and a mean maximal dose of 60.7 Gy (range 40–70 Gy) was delivered to these targets. In 1 patient undergoing retreatment, the margin dose was 12 Gy. The mean age at the time of radiosurgery was 54.5 years (range 18–79 years).

Results

The mean follow-up period was 57.8 months (range 36–94 months). Overall, 12 (57%) of 21 patients experienced pain relief without medication after the first GKS and the mean time to drug discontinuation was 10.5 months (range 2–24 months). Initial pain improvement was noted in 17 patients (81%) with a mean time of 3.7 months (range 1 week–10 months) after GKS. Eight patients underwent repeated GKS for persistent and recurrent pain. Four patients (50%) had complete pain relief. The final results of the first and repeated GKS were excellent in 16 patients (76%), and in only 1 patient did GKS fail, and this patient later underwent open surgery. For all 21 patients (100%), control of tumor growth was documented at a mean of 46 months after GKS. Three of 6 patients with pre-GKS facial numbness reported improvement, but 4 suffered new facial numbness after repeated GKS.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery appears to be an effective tool to treat benign tumor–related trigeminal pain and control tumor growth. Repeated GKS targeting the trigeminal root or ganglion can be considered a tool to enhance the efficacy of pain management if pain persists or recurs, but the optimum treatment dose needs further investigation.

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James M. Johnston and Tae Sung Park

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Cheng-Siu Chang, Chun-Chao Chuang, Ming-Fan Wu, Wen-Shan Liu, Hsien-Tang Tu, and Chuan-Fu Huang

Object

Most cases of tumor-related hemifacial spasm (HFS) are treated by open surgery. The authors report the effects of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) on benign tumor–related HFS at a mean follow-up time of 84 months.

Methods

Between 2000 and 2011, 6 patients (5 women and 1 man) harboring single tumors of the cerebellopontine angle (4 meningiomas and 2 vestibular schwannomas [VSs]) and experiencing HFS underwent GKS as a primary treatment. The mean age of the patients at the time of radiosurgery was 52.7 years (range 45–60 years).

The patients' tumors lay within the radiosurgical target area. In the 4 cases of meningioma, the mean radiosurgical treatment volume was 5.3 cm3 (range 1.2–9.6 cm3), and the mean radiosurgical tumor margin dose was 14.1 Gy (range 12–18 Gy); in the 2 cases of VS, the treatment volume was 2.5 cm3 in 1 patient and 11.2 cm3 in the other, and the margin doses were 11.5 and 12 Gy, respectively. The mean duration of HFS symptoms was 15.5 months (range 3–36 months).

Results

The mean follow-up period was 84 months (range 40–110 months). Overall, 4 (66%) of the 6 patients experienced complete relief from HFS without medication after GKS and 1 patient obtained a good outcome. The mean time for improvement to be realized was 12.6 months (range 3–24 months). Only 1 patient failed to experience relief from HFS, and coincidentally, the tumor did not shrink in that case. In all 6 patients (100%), tumor growth was controlled at a mean follow-up of 56 months after GKS: in 5 patients the tumor had decreased in size and in the other patient the tumor size remained unchanged. No new neurological deficit was noted after GKS, and 1 patient with facial numbness reported improvement after tumor shrinkage.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery appears to be effective in treating benign tumor–related HFS and in controlling tumor growth. A reduction in tumor volume is related to spasm improvement. Although a time latency for spasm relief is associated with GKS, minimal side effects are expected.

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Ruyi Yang, Xinjun Wang, Ziqiang Xv, Puxue Zhao, Junwu Li, Quan An, and Shan Huang

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare benign tumors originating from the cavernous sinus. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been recommended as a primary treatment for small- to medium-sized CSHs. The optimal treatment for giant CSHs is still controversial. In this study, the authors retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness and safety of staged GKRS treatment for giant CSHs.

METHODS

Twenty-two patients with giant CSH who received staged GKRS treatment in the Gamma Knife Treatment Center of Henan Province during the period from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018, were enrolled in this study. Six patients had received microsurgery before GKRS, the other 16 patients were diagnosed according to clinical symptoms and MR images. All of the enrolled patients received 2-stage GKRS, and the mean interval between the two GKRS treatments was 6.5 months (range 6–12 months). For the first GKRS, the median isodose line was 48% (range 45%–50%), the median marginal dose was 13 Gy (range 11.5–14 Gy), and the median coverage of CSHs was 80% (range 70%–88%). For the second GKRS treatment, the median isodose line was 50% (range 45%–55%), the median marginal dose to the CSHs was 10.5 Gy (range 9–12.5 Gy), and the median coverage of the CSHs was 88% (range 80%–94%).

RESULTS

All of the patients received an outpatient review of an enhanced MR image of the head and a clinical physical check every 6 months after the first GKRS treatment. The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 24–84 months). The tumor control rate was 100% 24 months after staged GKRS, and at the last follow-up the mean tumor shrinkage rate was 96.7% (range 90.6%–100%) and the mean residual CSH volume was 2.1 ml (range 0–8.5 ml). Twenty patients suffered central nervous system (CNS) injury symptoms to varying degrees before staged GKRS treatment. Complete symptom recovery was found in 11 (55%) patients, improved symptoms in 5 (25%) patients, and no change in 4 (20%) patients after treatment. Only 1 patient suffered temporary preexisting headache aggravation and 1 patient suffered temporary preexisting diplopia aggravation 1 week after receiving the first GKRS treatment. Subacute or chronic complications were not detected after staged GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Staged GKRS is an effective treatment for giant CSHs. Because of the impressively low incidence of adverse effects, staged GKRS may be considered as a primary treatment for giant CSHs.

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Bin Tang, ShenHao Xie, GuanLin Huang, ZhiGang Wang, Le Yang, XuanYong Yang, Shan Xu, ErMing Zeng, and Tao Hong

OBJECTIVE

Transinfundibular craniopharyngioma (TC) is one of the 4 subtypes of suprasellar craniopharyngioma. In this study, the authors analyzed the clinical features of and operative technique for TC.

METHODS

A total of 95 consecutive cases of suprasellar craniopharyngioma that had been resected via the endoscopic expanded endonasal approach were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the TC group and 61 in the nontransinfundibular craniopharyngioma (NC) group. Clinical and radiographic features, intraoperative findings, histopathological and genetic findings, and surgical outcomes were analyzed and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Compared with NC, TC was mostly seen in adult patients (97.1%); it was rare in children (2.9%). Clinical presentations tended toward headache, hydrocephalus, and diabetes insipidus. The relatively smaller volume, midline location (consistent with the stalk position), unidentifiable stalk, no shift of the third ventricle, and greater likelihood to involve the third ventricle and cause hydrocephalus were the characteristic features of TC in the preoperative MRI study. According to the degree of vertical extension of the tumor, the 34 TCs could be classified into 3 subtypes: type 1, entity was limited to stalk (n = 2, 5.9%); type 2, tumor extended up to the third ventricle (type 2a) or down to the subdiaphragmatic cavity (type 2b) (n = 23, 67.6%); and type 3, tumor extended in both directions (n = 9, 26.5%). For TC resection, the chiasm–pituitary corridor, lamina terminalis corridor, and pituitary corridor could be used separately or jointly. Most of the TCs originated from the infundibulum–tuber cinereum, grew within and along the long axis of the infundibulum, and the pituitary stalk was not usually preserved in TCs (20.6%), whereas the rate of preservation was higher (80.3%) in NCs. Bilateral hypothalamic injury was found in nearly all TCs if radical resection was performed, whereas the relationship between NCs and hypothalamus was either compression (32.8%) or unilateral invasion (67.2%). Meanwhile, the postoperative endocrine and neuropsychological function outcomes in patients with TC were worse than in patients with NC. The genetic analysis with whole-exome sequencing studies showed no differential mutations of CTNNB1 (β-catenin) and BRAF (V600E) between TC and NC subtypes, but there was a difference between adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma.

CONCLUSIONS

TC is a special subtype of suprasellar craniopharyngioma, which is remarkably different from NC. Identification of this type of tumor preoperatively is essential for the planning of appropriate surgical approach and degree of excision.

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Chuan-Fu Huang, Hsien-Tang Tu, Wen-Shan Liu, Shyh-Ying Chiou, and Long-Yau Lin

Object

The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) as a primary and repeated treatment modality with a mean follow-up of 5.7 years.

Methods

Between July 1999 and September 2005, a total of 89 patients with idiopathic TN underwent GKS as a primary treatment. The entry zone of the TN was targeted with a 4-mm collimator and treated with a maximal dose of 60–90 Gy (mean 79 Gy). The dose to the pontine margin was always kept < 15 Gy. Twenty patients received repeated GKS for recurrent or residual pain with a maximal dose of 40–76 Gy (mean 52 Gy). For the second procedure, the target was positioned at the same location as the first treatment.

Results

The mean follow-up period was 68 months (range 32–104 months). Sixty-nine (77.5%) of the 89 patients experienced a favorable response, as follows: 50 (56%) had excellent, 12 (13.5%) had good, and 7 (7.8%) had fair outcomes. The mean time to pain relief was 1.1 months (range 2 days–6 months). No significant correlation, but more likely a tendency, was found between the dose and pain relief (p = 0.08). Also, no correlation was noted for facial numbness (p = 0.77). The mean follow-up period after repeated GKS was 60 months (range 32–87 months). Outcomes after repeated GKS were excellent in 11 patients (55%) and good in 1 (5%). Seven patients experienced facial numbness. No correlation was found between the additive dose and pain relief (p = 0.24) or facial numbness (p = 0.15). Final outcomes of primary and repeated GKS were excellent in 61 (68.5%), good in 13 (14.6%), and fair in 7 (7.9%). In total, 91% of the patients were successfully treated with this method. There was no statistical significance for efficacy between primary and repeated GKS (p = 0.65), but there was a significant difference for facial numbness (p = 0.007).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery established durable pain relief when used as a primary and repeated surgery. Treatment was successful for a total of 91% of patients at a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, but facial numbness was also relatively higher.

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Chuan-Fu Huang, Shyh-Ying Chiou, Ming-Fang Wu, Hsien-Tang Tu, and Wen-Shan Liu

Object

The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) as a second treatment for recurrent or residual trigeminal neuralgia (TN) after failure of 3 initial procedures: microvascular decompression (MVD), GKS, and percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy (PRR).

Methods

Between 1999 and 2008, 65 patients (31 men [48%] and 34 women [52%]) with recurrent TN were treated with GKS. All 65 patients had undergone previous medical procedures that failed to achieve sufficient pain relief: 27 patients (42%) had undergone MVD, 8 (12%) had undergone PRR, and 30 (46%) had undergone GKS as the initial treatment. The entry zone of the trigeminal nerve was targeted using a 4-mm collimator and treated with 35–90 Gy. The isocenter was positioned so that the brainstem surface was usually irradiated at an isodose no greater than 20% (59 patients) to 30% (6 patients). The median duration of TN symptoms in these patients was 39 months (range 1–192 months).

Results

At the clinical evaluation, 42 patients (65%) with idiopathic TN reported successful pain control at a median follow-up point of 64 months (range 18–132 months). Of these patients, 33 (51%) were no longer using medication. At the 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up examinations, 74%, 71%, and 66% of patients experienced successful pain control, respectively. There was no significant difference in pain relief in the initial MVD group compared with the initial GKS and initial PRR groups (74% vs 59% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.342). Recurrence of pain was noted in 23 patients. Twelve of these 23 patients underwent another GKS, resulting in pain control in 8 patients (67%); 8 other patients underwent MVD, resulting in pain relief in 7 patients (87.5%). The median time from GKS to pain recurrence was 7 months (range 3–48 months). There was no significant difference in new facial numbness among the 3 groups (p = 0.24); however, in the initial GKS group, facial numbness was significantly associated with freedom from pain (p = 0.0012). There was a significant correlation between the total radiation dose and facial numbness. The cutoff value for facial numbness ranged from 115 to 120 Gy (p = 0.037).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery as a second treatment achieved acceptable levels of pain control in 65% of patients with residual or recurrent TN after long-term follow-up. Initial treatment was not a factor that affected pain control, but salvage surgery may be considered separately for each group.

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Chuan-Fu Huang, Shyh-Ying Chiou, Ming-Fang Wu, Hsien-Tang Tu, Wen-Shan Liu, and Jim-Chao Chuang

Object

Cellular density is a major factor for change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The authors hypothesized that loss of tumor cells after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) may alter the ADC value and used diffusion weighted MR imaging (DW imaging) to evaluate cellular changes in brain tumors to detect their treatment response and the efficacy of GKS.

Methods

In this paper the authors describe a prospective trial involving 86 patients harboring 38 solid or predominantly solid brain metastases, 30 meningiomas, and 24 acoustic neuromas that were treated by GKS. The patients underwent serial MR imaging examinations, including DW imaging, before treatment and at multiple intervals following GKS. Follow-up MR images and clinical outcomes were reviewed at 3-month intervals for metastatic lesions and at 6-month intervals for benign tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficients were calculated from echoplanar DW images, and mean ADC values were compared at each follow-up.

Results

The mean ADC value for all meningiomas was 0.82 ± 0.15 × 10−3 mm2/sec before GKS. The mean ADC value as of the last mean follow-up of 42 months was 1.36 ± 0.19 × 10−3 mm2/sec, a significant increase compared to that before treatment (p < 0.0001). Calcification (p = 0.006) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.025) significantly prevented a rise in the ADC level.

The mean ADC value for all solid acoustic neuromas was 1.06 ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/sec before GKS. The mean ADC value as of the last mean follow-up of 36 months was 1.72 ± 0.26 × 10−3 mm2/sec, a significant increase (p = 0.0002) compared with values before GKS. At the last mean MR imaging follow-up there appeared to be tumor enlargement in 3 patients (12.5%); however, since the ADC values in these patients were significantly higher than the preradiosurgery values, the finding was considered to be a sign of radiation necrosis rather than tumor recurrence.

The mean ADC value of metastatic tumors was 1.05 ± 0.12 × 10−3 mm2/sec before GKS. This value rose significantly (p < 0.0001) to 1.64 ± 0.18 × 10−3 mm2/sec after GKS at a mean follow-up of 9.4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that 89% of these tumors had been controlled by GKS. In 2 patients there were enlarged lesions, but the ADC values were the same as pre-GKS levels, and therefore, the lesions were deemed recurrent.

Conclusions

Apparent diffusion coefficient values may be useful in evaluating treatment results before a definitive change in volume is evident on imaging studies. In some patients in whom imaging findings are equivocal, ADC values may also be used to distinguish radiation-induced necrosis from tumor recurrence.

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Chih-Lung Lin, Aij-Lie Kwan, Aaron S. Dumont, Yu-Feng Su, Neal F. Kassell, Chih-Jen Wang, Shu-Chuan Wu, Ching-Ling Kuo, Ching-Shan Huang, Arco Y. Jeng, and Chin-San Liu

Object

Adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule–1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule–1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, are important mediators of inflammation, and their levels are elevated in the serum of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The investigators previously found that CGS 26303 is effective in preventing and reversing arterial narrowing in a rabbit model of SAH. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether levels of adhesion molecules are altered after treatment with CGS 26303 in this animal model.

Methods

New Zealand White rabbits were each injected with 3 ml of autologous blood in the cisterna magna, and intravenous treatment with CGS 26303 (30 mg/kg) was initiated 1 hour later. The compound was subsequently administered at 12, 24, and 36 hours post-SAH. Blood samples were collected at 48 hours post-SAH to measure ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels. After the rabbits had been killed by perfusion–fixation, the basilar arteries (BAs) were removed and sliced, and their cross-sectional areas were measured.

Treatment with CGS 26303 attenuated arterial narrowing after SAH. Morphologically, corrugation of the internal elastic lamina of BAs was prominently observed in the SAH only and vehicle-treated SAH groups, but not in the CGS 26303–treated SAH group or in healthy controls. There were no significant differences in the levels of VCAM-1 among the four groups. The levels of E-selectin were increased in all animals subjected to SAH (those in the SAH only, SAH plus vehicle, and SAH plus CGS 26303 groups) compared with healthy controls (no SAH); however, the levels of ICAM-1 in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (p < 0.001), and treatment with CGS 26303 reduced ICAM-1 to control levels following SAH.

Conclusions

These results show that ICAM-1 may play a role in mediating SAH-induced vasospasm and that a reduction of ICAM-1 levels after SAH may partly contribute to the antispastic effect of CGS 26303.