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JianMing Luo, Bin Liu, ZeYu Xie, Shan Ding, ZeRui Zhuang, Lan Lin, YanChun Guo, Hui Chen and Xiaojun Yu


The object of this study was to compare the effects and complications of manual and computer-aided shaping of titanium meshes for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects following traumatic brain injury.


From March 2005 to June 2011, 161 patients with frontotemporoparietal skull defects were observed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the repair materials used for cranioplasty: 83 cases used computer-aided shaping for the titanium mesh, whereas the remaining 78 cases used a manually shaped titanium mesh. The advantages and disadvantages of the 2 methods were compared.


No case of titanium mesh loosening occurred in either group. Subcutaneous fluid collection, titanium mesh tilt, and temporal muscle pain were the most common complications. In the manually shaped group, there were 14 cases of effusion, 10 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 15 cases of temporal muscle pain. In the computer-aided group, there were 6 cases of effusion, 3 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 6 cases of temporal muscle pain. The differences were significant between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Other common complications were scalp infection, exposure of titanium mesh, epidural hematoma, and seizures. In the computer-aided group, the operative time decreased (p < 0.01), the number of screws used was reduced (p < 0.01), and the satisfaction of patients was significantly increased (p < 0.05).


Computer-aided shaping of titanium mesh for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects decreases postoperative complications and the operative duration, reduces the number of screws used, increases the satisfaction of patients, and restores the appearance of the patient's head, making it an ideal choice for cranioplasty.

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Shan Wang, Yingying Tang, Thandar Aung, Cong Chen, Masaya Katagiri, Stephen E. Jones, Richard A. Prayson, Balu Krishnan, Jorge A. Gonzalez-Martinez, Richard C. Burgess, Imad M. Najm, Andreas V. Alexopoulos, Shuang Wang, Meiping Ding and Zhong Irene Wang


Presurgical evaluation of patients with operculoinsular epilepsy and negative MRI presents major challenges. Here the authors examined the yield of noninvasive modalities such as voxel-based morphometric MRI postprocessing, FDG-PET, subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a cohort of patients with operculoinsular epilepsy and negative MRI.


Twenty-two MRI-negative patients were included who had focal ictal onset from the operculoinsular cortex on intracranial EEG, and underwent focal resection limited to the operculoinsular cortex. MRI postprocessing was applied to presurgical T1-weighted volumetric MRI using a morphometric analysis program (MAP). Individual and combined localization yields of MAP, FDG-PET, MEG, and SISCOM were compared with the ictal onset location on intracranial EEG. Seizure outcomes were reported at 1 year and 2 years (when available) using the Engel classification.


Ten patients (45.5%, 10/22) had operculoinsular abnormalities on MAP; 5 (23.8%, 5/21) had operculoinsular hypometabolism on FDG-PET; 4 (26.7%, 4/15) had operculoinsular hyperperfusion on SISCOM; and 6 (30.0%, 6/20) had an MEG cluster (3 tight, 3 loose) within the operculoinsular cortex. The highest yield of a 2-test combination was 59.1%, seen with MAP and SISCOM, followed by 54.5% with MAP and FDG-PET, and also 54.5% with MAP and MEG. The highest yield of a 3-test combination was 68.2%, seen with MAP, MEG, and SISCOM. The yield of the 4-test combination remained at 68.2%. When all other tests were negative or nonlocalizing, unique information was provided by MAP in 5, MEG in 1, SISCOM in 2, and FDG-PET in none of the patients. One-year follow-up was available in all patients, and showed 11 Engel class IA, 4 class IB, 4 class II, and 3 class III/IV. Two-year follow-up was available in 19 patients, and showed 9 class IA, 3 class IB, 1 class ID, 3 class II, and 3 class III/IV.


This study highlights the individual and combined values of multiple noninvasive modalities for the evaluation of nonlesional operculoinsular epilepsy. The 3-test combination of MAP, MEG, and SISCOM represented structural, interictal, and ictal localization information, and constituted the highest yield. MAP showed the highest yield of unique information when other tests were negative or nonlocalizing.