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Osama Jamil, Shakti Ramkissoon, Rebecca Folkerth and Edward Smith

Meningioangiomatosis consists of benign hamartomatous lesions of the brain and the leptomeninges, which typically present with seizure. Management is predicated on resection and control of seizures with medication. Lesions are typically solitary. Multifocal meningioangiomatosis is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in adults and none in children. The authors report the first case, to their knowledge, of multifocal meningioangiomatosis in a child. This unique case highlights therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions and demonstrates that multifocality is possible in the pediatric population. This finding has implications for diagnosis and follow-up for children afflicted with these tumors.

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Gabriel Zada, Ning Lin, Eric Ojerholm, Shakti Ramkissoon and Edward R. Laws

Object

Cystic epithelial masses of the sellar and parasellar region may be difficult to differentiate on a clinical, imaging, or even histopathological basis. The authors review the developmental relationships and differentiating features of various epithelial lesions of the sellar region.

Methods

The authors performed a review of the literature to identify previous studies describing the etiological relationships and differentiating features of various cystic sellar lesions, including craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke cleft cyst, xanthogranuloma, and dermoid and epidermoid cysts.

Results

There is significant evidence in the literature to support a common ectodermal origin of selected sellar and suprasellar cystic lesions, which may account for the overlap of features and transitional states observed in some cases. Research obtained from animal studies and reports of transitional cystic epithelial masses or lesions crossing over from typical to more aggressive pathological subtypes have collectively provided a solid foundation for this theory. Histological features that signify transitional entities beyond simple benign Rathke cleft cysts include squamous metaplasia, stratified squamous epithelium, and ciliated or mucinous goblet cells in squamous-papillary CPs. Several studies have identified key clinical, imaging, and histopathological features that can be used in the differentiation of these lesions.

Conclusions

The pattern of embryological formation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis plays a major role in its propensity for developing cystic epithelial lesions. Subsequent inflammatory, metaplastic, and neoplastic processes may promote further progression along the pathological continuum, ranging from benign epithelial cysts to aggressive neoplastic cystic CPs. Selected clinical, imaging, and histopathological features can be used collectively to help differentiate these lesions and assign a formal diagnosis, thus accurately guiding further treatment.

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Manish K. Kasliwal, Gary F. Rogers, Shakti Ramkissoon, Alexander Moses-Gardner, Kyle C. Kurek and Edward R. Smith

Psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (POF), a variant of ossifying fibroma, is a benign fibroosseous lesion typically arising within the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and orbit. Cranial vault involvement is exceedingly rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. The authors report a case of POF in the neurocranium of an 11-year-old child, 4 years after chemotherapy and radiation therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case is reported in view of its rarity, novelty of presentation, and the difficulty in diagnosis due to its radiological resemblance to aneurysmal bone cyst or monostotic cystic fibrous dysplasia, further aggravated by the clinical scenario. A novel technique of cranial reconstruction called autologous particulate exchange cranioplasty was used following tumor excision.

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Gabriel Zada, Whitney W. Woodmansee, Shakti Ramkissoon, Jordan Amadio, Vania Nose and Edward R. Laws Jr.

Object

The 2004 WHO classification of pituitary adenomas now includes an “atypical” variant, defined as follows: MIB-1 proliferative index greater than 3%, excessive p53 immunoreactivity, and increased mitotic activity. The authors review the incidence of this atypical histopathological subtype and its correlation with tumor subtype, invasion, and surgical features.

Methods

The records of 121 consecutive patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas during an 18-month period were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of atypical adenomas.

Results

Eighteen adenomas (15%) met the criteria for atypical lesions; 17 (94%) of the 18 were macroadenomas. On imaging, 15 (83%) demonstrated imaging evidence of surrounding invasion, compared with 45% of typical adenomas (p = 0.004). Atypical tumors occurred in 12 female (67%) and 6 male (33%) patients. Patient age ranged from 16 to 70 years (mean 48 years). Nine patients (50%) had hormonally active tumors, and 9 had nonfunctional lesions. Four (22%) of the 18 patients presented to us with recurrent tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the following tumor subtypes: GH-secreting adenoma with plurihormonal staining (5 patients [28%]); null-cell adenoma (5 patients [28%]); silent ACTH tumor (3 patients [17%]), ACTH-staining tumor with Cushing's disease (2 patients [11%]), prolactinoma (2 patients [11%]), and silent FSH-staining tumor (1 patient [6%]). The MIB-1 labeling index ranged from 3% to 20% (mean 7%).

Conclusions

Atypical tumors were identified in 15% of resected pituitary adenomas, and they tended to be aggressive, invasive macroadenomas. More longitudinal follow-up is required to determine whether surgical outcomes, potential for recurrence, or metastasis of atypical adenomas vary significantly from their typical counterparts.