The authors present a case of traumatic, complete, high cervical spine injury in a patient with gradual worsening deformity and neck pain while in rigid cervical collar immobilization, ultimately resulting in coronal-plane spondyloptosis. Due to the extent of lateral displacement of the spinal elements, preoperative evaluation included catheter angiography, which revealed complete right vertebral artery (VA) occlusion. A prophylactic arterial bypass graft from the right occipital artery to the extradural right VA was fashioned to augment posterior circulation blood supply prior to reduction and circumferential instrumented fusion. Following surgery, the patient was able to participate in an aggressive rehabilitation program allowing early mobilization, and he ceased to be ventilator-dependent following implantation of a diaphragmatic pacer. The authors review factors leading to progression of this type of injury and suggest technical pearls as well as highlight specific management pitfalls, including operative risks.
Sunil Manjila, Shakeel A. Chowdhry, Nicholas C. Bambakidis, and David J. Hart
Sunil Manjila, Tony Masri, Tanzila Shams, Shakeel A. Chowdhry, Cathy Sila, and Warren R. Selman
In this paper, the authors' aim is to provide an evidence-based review of primary and secondary ischemic stroke prevention guidelines covering most of the common risk factors and stroke etiologies for the practicing neurosurgeon. The key to stroke prevention is in the identification and treatment of the major risk factors for stroke. These include hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking. An updated approach to secondary prevention of stroke in the setting of intracranial and extracranial large vessel atherosclerosis and cardioembolism is provided along with a brief overview of pertinent clinical trials. Novel pharmacological options for prevention of cardioembolic strokes, such as new alternatives to warfarin, are addressed with recommendations for interruption of therapy for elective surgical procedures. In addition, the authors have reviewed the anticoagulation guidelines and the risk of thromboembolic complications of such therapies in the perioperative period, which is an invaluable piece of information for neurosurgeons. Less common etiologies such as arterial dissections and patent foramen ovale are also briefly discussed. Finally, the authors have outlined the quality measures in the Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System and essential guidelines for Primary Stroke Center certification, which have implications for day-to-day neurosurgical practice.
Sunil Manjila, Harvey Chim, Sylvia Eisele, Shakeel A. Chowdhry, Arun K. Gosain, and Alan R. Cohen
The history and evolution of surgical strategies for the treatment of Kleeblattschädel deformity are not well described in the medical literature. Kleeblattschädel anomaly is one of the most formidable of the craniosynostoses, requiring a multidisciplinary team for surgical treatment. The initial descriptions of this cloverleaf deformity and the evolution of surgical treatment are detailed in the present report. Two illustrative cases of Kleeblattschädel deformity, syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostoses treated by the senior authors, are also described along with insights into operative strategies.