Nontraumatic intradiploic pseudomeningoceles and de novo syringomyelia formation are very rare entities. The authors have previously reported the case of a 4-year-old girl who underwent foramen magnum decompression without dural closure for Chiari I malformation. Three years after the operation an intradiploic pseudomeningocele was documented, but the patient was lost to follow-up without undergoing revision surgery. Four years later, at the age of 11 years, the patient returned for treatment of intensifying symptoms. Radiological imaging then showed an increase in the size of the intradiploic pseudomeningocele and a new cervical syrinx. The patient underwent a first revision surgery in which a part of the internal layer of the occipital bone was removed and arachnoid scar lysis was performed. Two months later the syrinx had worsened, and in a second revision surgery a pseudomeningocele-peritoneal shunt was placed. Here, the authors describe what is to their knowledge the first case of an intradiploic pseudomeningocele and de novo syringomyelia formation following Chiari I decompressive surgery.
Richard Hayward, Jonathan A. Britto, David Dunaway, Robert Evans, Noor ul Owase Jeelani and Dominic Thompson
Sandeep Sood, Neena Marupudi, Abilash Haridas and Steven D. Ham
Gregory P. L. Thomas, David Johnson, Jo C. Byren, Andrew D. Judge, Jayaratnam Jayamohan, Shailendra A. Magdum, Peter G. Richards and Steven A. Wall
Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is recognized to occur in patients with nonsyndromic isolated sagittal craniosynostosis (SC) prior to surgery. However, the incidence of raised ICP following primary surgery is rarely reported and there appears to be a widely held assumption that corrective surgery for SC prevents the later development of intracranial hypertension. This study reports the incidence of postoperative raised ICP in a large cohort of patients with SC treated by 1 of 2 surgical procedures in a single craniofacial unit.
A retrospective review was performed of all patients with SC who underwent either a modified strip craniectomy (MSC) or calvarial remodeling (CR) procedure under the care of the Oxford Craniofacial Unit between 1995 and 2010 and who were followed up for more than 2 years. The influence of patient age at surgery, year of surgery, sex, procedure type, and the presence of raised ICP preoperatively were analyzed.
Two hundred seventeen children had primary surgery for SC and were followed up for a mean of 86 months. The overall rate of raised ICP following surgery was 6.9%, occurring at a mean of 51 months after the primary surgical procedure. Raised ICP was significantly more common in those patients treated by MSC (13 of 89 patients, 14.6%) than CR (2 of 128 patients, 1.6%). Also, raised ICP was more common in patients under 1 year of age, the majority of whom were treated by MCS. No other factor was found to have a significant effect.
Postoperative raised ICP was found in more than 1 in 20 children treated for nonsyndromic SC in this series. It was significantly influenced by the primary surgical procedure and age at primary surgery. Careful long-term follow-up is essential if children who develop raised ICP following surgery are not to be overlooked.
Steven A. Wall, Gregory P. L. Thomas, David Johnson, Jo C. Byren, Jayaratnam Jayamohan, Shailendra A. Magdum, David J. McAuley and Peter G. Richards
The presence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in untreated nonsyndromic, isolated sagittal craniosynostosis (SC) is an important functional indication for surgery.
A retrospective review was performed of all 284 patients presenting with SC to the Oxford Craniofacial Unit between 1995 and 2010.
Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring was performed in 39 children following a standard unit protocol. Monitoring of ICP was offered for all patients in whom nonoperative management was considered on the basis of minimal deformity or in cases in which parents were reluctant to agree to corrective surgery. These patients presented at an older age than the rest of the cohort (mean age 56 months), with marked scaphocephaly (16/39, 41%), mild scaphocephaly (11, 28%), or no scaphocephalic deformity (12, 31%). Raised ICP was found in 17 (44%) patients, with no significant difference in its incidence among the 3 different deformity types. Raised ICP was not predicted by the presence of symptoms of ICP or developmental delay or by ophthalmological or radiological findings.
The incidence of raised ICP in SC reported here is greater than that previously published in the literature. The lack of a reliable noninvasive method to identify individuals with elevated ICP in SC mandates consideration of intraparenchymal ICP monitoring in all patients for whom nonoperative management is contemplated.
Ruichong Ma, David Rowland, Andrew Judge, Amedeo Calisto, Jayaratnam Jayamohan, David Johnson, Peter Richards, Shailendra Magdum and Steven Wall
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is an important tool in the neurosurgeon’s armamentarium and is used for a wide range of indications. There are many different ICP monitors available, of which fiber-optic intraparenchymal devices are very popular. Here, the authors document their experience performing ICP monitoring from 2005 to 2015 and specifically complication rates following insertion of the Microsensor ICP monitor.
A retrospective case series review of all patients who underwent ICP monitoring over a 10-year period from 2005 to 2015 was performed.
There were 385 separate operations with an overall complication rate of 8.3% (32 of 385 cases). Hardware failure occurred in 4.2% of cases, the CSF leakage rate was 3.6%, the postoperative hemorrhage rate was 0.5%, and there was 1 case of infection (0.3% of cases). Only patients with hardware problems required further surgery as a result of their complications, and no patient had any permanent morbidity or mortality from the procedure. Younger patients (p = 0.001) and patients with pathologically high ICP (13% of patients with high ICP vs 6.5% of patients with normal ICP; p = 0.04) were significantly more likely to have complications. There was no significant difference in the complication rates between general neurosurgical patients and craniofacial patients (7.6% vs 8.8%, respectively; p = 0.67).
Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring is a safe procedure associated with low complications and morbidity in the pediatric craniofacial and neurosurgical population and should be offered to appropriate patients to assess ICP with the reassurance of the safety record reported in this study.