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Shahid M. Nimjee, Ciaran J. Powers, and Ketan R. Bulsara

✓In this paper the authors review the literature concerning de novo cavernoma formation after radiation treatment. PubMed and MEDLINE database searches were performed. Data were compiled on all patients in whom de novo cavernomas formed after radiation treatment and whose cases were reported in the literature. The authors found reports in the literature of 76 patients in whom cavernomas formed de novo after radiation treatment. The mean age of the patients was 11.7 years, and the majority of these lesions occurred in males. The patients received a mean radiation dose of 60.45 Gy. The mean latency period before detection of the cavernoma was 8.9 years, and most of these lesions were detected incidentally. In symptomatic patients, the most common presenting symptoms were seizures. Thirty-seven of the patients had evidence of hemorrhage, and 54% of these required surgical intervention.

De novo formation of cavernomas after radiation treatment is a relatively rare phenomenon. Patients in whom these cavernomas develop need to be followed closely because there is a propensity for the lesions to hemorrhage. Surgical intervention to treat symptomatic lesions has a favorable outcome.

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David Dornbos III, Constantine L. Karras, Nicole Wenger, Blake Priddy, Patrick Youssef, Shahid M. Nimjee, and Ciarán J. Powers

OBJECTIVE

The utilization of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) has increased significantly since its inception and original approval for use in large, broad-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. While microsurgical clipping and advances in endovascular techniques have improved overall efficacy in achieving complete occlusion, recurrences still occur, and the best modality for retreatment remains controversial. Despite its efficacy in this setting, the role of PED utilization in the setting of recurrent aneurysms has not yet been well defined. This study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of PED in the recurrence of previously treated aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a total of 13 cases in which patients underwent secondary placement of a PED for aneurysm recurrence following prior treatment with another modality. The PEDs were used to treat aneurysm recurrence or residual following endovascular coiling in 7 cases, flow diversion in 2, and microsurgical clipping in 4. The mean time between initial treatment and retreatment with a PED was 28.1 months, 12 months, and 88.7 months, respectively. Clinical outcomes, including complications and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, and angiographic evidence of complete occlusion were tabulated for each treatment group.

RESULTS

All PEDs were successfully placed without periprocedural complications. The rate of complete occlusion was 80% at 6 months after PED placement and 100% at 12 months in these patients who underwent PED placement following failed endovascular coiling; there were no adverse clinical sequelae at a mean follow-up of 26.1 months. In the 2 cases in which PEDs were placed for treatment of residual aneurysms following prior flow diversion, 1 patient demonstrated asymptomatic vessel occlusion at 6 months, and the other exhibited complete aneurysm occlusion at 12 months. In patients with aneurysm recurrence following prior microsurgical clipping, the rate of complete occlusion was 100% at 6 and 12 months, with no adverse sequelae noted at a mean clinical follow-up of 27.7 months.

CONCLUSIONS

The treatment of recurrent aneurysms with the PED following previous endovascular coiling, flow diversion, or microsurgical clipping is associated with a high rate of complete occlusion and minimal morbidity.

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Justin Baum, Stephanus V. Viljoen, Connor S. Gifford, Amy J. Minnema, Ammar Shaikhouni, Andrew J. Grossbach, Shahid Nimjee, and H. Francis Farhadi

OBJECTIVE

Despite the increasing incidence of spinal epidural abscess (SEA), the baseline parameters potentially predictive of treatment failure remain poorly characterized. In this study, the authors identify the relevant baseline parameters that predict multimodal treatment failure in patients with either intravenous drug use (IVDU)–associated SEA or non-IVDU–associated SEA.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the electronic medical records of a large institutional series of consecutive patients with diagnosed SEA between January 2011 and December 2017 to characterize epidemiological trends as well as the complement of baseline measures that are predictive of failure after multimodal treatment in patients with and without concomitant IVDU. The independent impact of clinical and imaging factors in detecting treatment failure was assessed by performing stepwise binary logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 324 consecutive patients with diagnosed SEA were identified. Overall, 226 patients (69.8%) had SEA related to other causes and 98 (30.2%) had a history of recent IVDU. While non-IVDU SEA admission rates remained constant, year-over-year admissions of patients with IVDU SEA nearly tripled. At baseline, patients with IVDU SEA were distinct in many respects including younger age, greater unemployment and disability, less frequent diabetes mellitus (DM), and more frequent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, differences in length of stay, loss to follow-up, and treatment failure did not reach statistical significance between the groups. The authors constructed independent multivariate logistic regression models for treatment failure based on identified parameters in the two cohorts. For the non-IVDU cohort, the authors identified four variables as independent factors: DM, hepatitis B/C, osteomyelitis, and compression deformity severity. In contrast, for patients with IVDU, the authors identified three variables: albumin, endocarditis, and endplate destruction. Receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were undertaken for the multivariate models predicting the likelihood of treatment failure in the two cohorts (AUC = 0.88 and 0.89, respectively), demonstrating that the derived models could adequately predict the risk of multimodal treatment failure. Treatment failure risk factor point scales were derived for the identified variables separately for both cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with IVDU SEA represent a unique population with a distinct set of baseline parameters that predict treatment failure. Identification of relevant prognosticating factors will allow for the design of tailored treatment and follow-up regimens.

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Shahid M. Nimjee, Ciaran J. Powers, Roger E. McLendon, Gerald A. Grant, and Herbert E. Fuchs

Cerebrospinal fluid overproduction resulting in communicating hydrocephalus is observed in patients who have choroid plexus papilloma or choroid plexus carcinoma. Less often, patients with these conditions have diffuse villous hyperplasia. Prior studies report CSF production greater than 3 L per day in these patients. These patients are treated with CSF shunting or by either unilateral choroid plexectomy or staged bilateral choroid plexectomy. The authors present a patient who had a number of congenital anomalies and a karyotype that revealed balanced translocations, 5 to 7 and 9 to 11. She presented with hydrocephalus and had CSF production of 5 L per day, greater output than ever previously reported. She was treated with a single-stage bilateral choroid plexectomy. Histopathological analysis revealed a bilateral choroid plexus papilloma. Postoperatively, the patient responded well clinically and showed radiographic improvement of her hydrocephalus. Bilateral choroid plexus papilloma has been reported in the literature as a cause for neonatal and congenital hydrocephalus. It can result in high CSF output and can be successfully treated with a single-stage bilateral choroid plexectomy. Further studies are ongoing to identify genes involved in embryogenesis of the choroid plexus.

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Shahid M. Nimjee, Tony P. Smith, Ronald J. Kanter, Warwick Ames, Kelly A. Machovec, Gerald A. Grant, and Ali R. Zomorodi

Large cerebral aneurysms of the basilar apex are difficult to treat. Recently, endovascular treatment has mitigated much of the morbidity associated with treating these lesions. However, the morphology of aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can preclude endovascular treatment. Rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) facilitates open surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms. It can assist in reducing the pressure of the neck of the aneurysm, allowing safe application of a clip. The authors present a case of a pediatric patient who developed a basilar artery pseudoaneurysm that required surgery. Given the large size of the aneurysm, RVP was performed, allowing the surgeons to dissect the dome of the aneurysm from the surrounding tissue and pontine perforating branches away from the lesion to safely clip the lesion. The patient had an uneventful recovery. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first known case of RVP to aid in basilar artery clip occlusion in a pediatric patient.

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Matthew J. McGirt, Robert Blessing, Michael J. Alexander, Shahid M. Nimjee, Graeme F. Woodworth, Allan H. Friedman, Carmelo Graffagnino, Daniel T. Laskowitz, and John R. Lynch

Object

Impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelium-dependent relaxation, and cerebrovascular autoregulation all occur in vasospastic cerebral arteries following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The 3-hy-droxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, both improve endothelial function and increase eNOS messenger RNA, protein, and enzymatic activity threefold. Increasing experimental evidence in animal models of SAH suggests that statins may ameliorate cerebral vasospasm. The authors hypothesized that patients chronically treated with statins would have a decreased risk of symptomatic vasospasm after SAH.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 115 patients with SAH who were consecutively admitted to the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit of Duke University between 1998 and 2001. The independent association of statin therapy to symptomatic vasospasm was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Fifteen patients (13%) admitted with SAH were receiving statin therapy for at least 1 month before admission. Forty-nine patients (43%) experienced symptomatic vasospasm a mean of 5.8 ± 3 days after onset of SAH. Current statin therapy on admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01–0.77) was independently associated with an 11-fold reduction in the risk of symptomatic vasospasm. Fisher Grade 3 SAH (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.50–5.71) and rupture of anterior cerebral or internal carotid artery aneurysm (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.29–10.91) were independently associated with an increased risk of symptomatic vasospasm.

Conclusions

In this retrospective case series, patients who received statin therapy for at least 1 month demonstrated an 11-fold decrease in the risk of developing symptomatic vasospasm after SAH.