Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shabari Girishan x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Shabari Girishan and Vedantam Rajshekhar

OBJECT

Intramedullary dermoid cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Presentation with rapid onset of paraparesis or quadriparesis (onset within 2 weeks) is rarer still. The authors present their experience in the management and outcome of patients with such a presentation.

METHODS

Patient records between 2000 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify those with intraspinal dermoid cysts who presented with rapid-onset paraparesis or quadriparesis. Their clinical, radiological, operative, and follow-up data were analyzed.

RESULTS

Of a total of 50 patients with intraspinal dermoid cysts managed during the study period, 10 (20%) presented with rapid-onset paraparesis or quadriparesis; 9 patients ranged in age from 8 months to 2 years, and 1 patient was 25 years old. A dermal sinus was seen in the lumbar region of 4 patients, the sacral region of 3, and the thoracic region of 1, and in 1 patient no sinus was found. All except 1 patient presented with rapid-onset paraparesis secondary to infection of the intramedullary dermoid cyst. One patient presented with rupture of a dermoid cyst with extension into the central canal up to the medulla. Early surgery was done soon after presentation in all except 2 patients. Among the 9 patients who underwent surgery (1 patient did not undergo surgery), total excision of the intramedullary dermoid cyst was done in 3 patients, near-total excision in 4 patients, and partial excision in 2 patients. Of the 9 patients who underwent surgery, 8 showed significant improvement in their neurological status, and 1 patient remained stable. The 1 patient who did not undergo surgery died as a result of an uncontrolled infection after being discharged to a local facility for management of wound infection.

CONCLUSIONS

Early recognition of a dermal sinus and the associated intraspinal dermoid cyst and timely surgical intervention can eliminate the chances of acute deterioration of neurological function. Even after an acute onset of paraparesis or quadriparesis, appropriate antibiotic therapy and prompt surgery can provide reasonably good outcomes in these patients.

Restricted access

Shabari Girishan, Manjari Tripathi, Ajay Garg, Ramesh Doddamani, Jitin Bajaj, Bhargavi Ramanujam, and P. Sarat Chandra

Objective

The authors sought to analyze the residual connections formed by the temporal stem as a cause for seizure recurrence following endoscopic vertical interhemispheric hemispherotomy and to review and compare lateral approach (perisylvian) with vertical approach surgical techniques to highlight the anatomical factors responsible for residual connections.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent endoscopic hemispherotomy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Postoperative MR images were analyzed. Specific attention was given to anatomical 3D-acquired thin-section T1 images to assess the extent of disconnection, which was confirmed with a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Cadaver brain dissection was done to analyze the anatomical factors responsible for persistent connections.

RESULTS

Of 39 patients who underwent surgery, 80% (31/39) were seizure free (follow-up of 23.61 ± 8.25 months) following the first surgery. Thirty patients underwent postoperative MRI studies, which revealed persistent connections in 14 patients (11 temporal stem only; 3 temporal stem + amygdala + splenium). Eight of these 14 patients had persistent seizures. In 4 of these 8 patients, investigations revealed good concordance with the affected hemisphere, and repeat endoscopic disconnection of the residual connection was performed. Two of the 8 patients were lost to follow-up, and 2 had bihemispheric seizure onset. The 4 patients who underwent repeat endoscopic disconnection had seizure-free outcomes following the second surgery, increasing the good outcome total among all patients to 90% (35/39). Cadaveric brain dissection analysis revealed the anatomical factors responsible for the persistence of residual connections.

CONCLUSIONS

In endoscopic vertical approach interhemispheric hemispherotomy (and also vertical approach parasagittal hemispherotomy) the temporal stem, which lies deep and parallel to the plane of disconnection, is prone to be missed, which might lead to persistent or recurrent seizures. The recognition of this limitation can lead to improved seizure outcome. The amygdala and splenium are areas less commonly prone to be missed during surgery.

Restricted access

P. Sarat Chandra, Ramesh Doddamani, Shabari Girishan, Raghu Samala, Mohit Agrawal, Ajay Garg, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrashekar Bal, Ashima Nehra, and Manjari Tripathi

OBJECTIVE

The authors present a new “bloodless” technique for minimally invasive robotic thermocoagulative hemispherotomy (ROTCH). Such a method is being described in the literature for the first time.

METHODS

A robotic system was used to plan five sets of different trajectories: anterior disconnection, middle disconnection, posterior disconnection, corpus callosotomy, and temporal stem and amygdalar disconnection. A special technique, called the “X” technique, allowed planar disconnection. Registration was performed with surface landmarks (n = 5) and bone fiducials (n = 1). Coregistration with O-arm images was performed one or two times to confirm the trajectories (once for middle disconnection, and once for disconnection of the temporal stem and amygdala or body of the corpus callosum). Impedance measured before ablation allowed for minor adjustments. Radiofrequency ablation was performed at 75°C–80°C for 60 seconds. Surgical procedures were performed with multiple twist drills. After removal of the electrode, glue was used to prevent CSF leak, and a single stitch was applied. Follow-up CT and MRI were immediately performed.

RESULTS

The pathologies included Rasmussen's encephalitis (n = 2), hemispheric cortical dysplasia (n = 2), posttraumatic encephalomalacia (n = 1), and perinatal insult (n = 1). The mean ± SD (range) age was 6.7 ± 3.6 years (5 months to 10.2 years), and the right side was affected in 4 patients. The mean ± SD seizure frequency was 7.4 ± 5.6 seizures per day (1 patient had epilepsia partialis continua). The mean ± SD number of trajectories was 15.3 ± 2.5, and the mean ± SD number of lesions was 108 ± 25.8. The mean ± SD maximum numbers of trajectories and lesions required for middle disconnection were 7.1 ± 1.7 and 57.5 ± 18.4, respectively. All but 1 patient had class 1 outcomes according to the International League Against Epilepsy Outcome Scale at a mean ± SD (range) follow-up of 13.5 ± 1.6 (12–16) months; the remaining patient had a class 2 outcome. The estimated blood loss was < 5 ml for all patients. Complications included repeat surgery (after 2 weeks) for a “skip” area (n = 1) and a small temporal hematoma (n = 1), which resolved.

CONCLUSIONS

ROTCH seems to be a safe, feasible, and bloodless procedure, with a very low morbidity rate and promising outcomes.

Full access

P. Sarat Chandra, Heri Subianto, Jitin Bajaj, Shabari Girishan, Ramesh Doddamani, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Mahendra Singh Chouhan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar S. Bal, Chitra Sarkar, Rekha Dwivedi, Savita Sapra, and Manjari Tripathi

OBJECTIVE

Endoscope-assisted hemispherotomy (EH) has emerged as a good alternative option for hemispheric pathologies with drug-resistant epilepsy.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational study. Parameters measured included primary outcome measures (frequency, severity of seizures) and secondary outcomes (cognition, behavior, and quality of life). Blood loss, operating time, complications, and hospital stay were also taken into account. A comparison was made between the open hemispherotomy (OH) and endoscopic techniques performed by the senior author.

RESULTS

Of 59 cases (42 males), 27 underwent OH (8 periinsular, the rest vertical) and 32 received EH. The mean age was 8.65 ± 5.41 years (EH: 8.6 ± 5.3 years; OH: 8.6 ± 5.7 years). Seizure frequency per day was 7 ± 5.9 (EH: 7.3 ± 4.6; OH: 15.0 ± 6.2). Duration of disease (years since first episode) was 3.92 ± 1.24 years (EH: 5.2 ± 4.3; OH: 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Number of antiepileptic drugs per patient was 3.9 ± 1.2 (EH: 4.2 ± 1.2; OH: 3.8 ± 0.98). Values for the foregoing variables are expressed as the mean ± SD. Pathologies included the following: postinfarct encephalomalacia in 19 (EH: 11); Rasmussen’s syndrome in 14 (EH: 7); hemimegalencephaly in 12 (EH: 7); hemispheric cortical dysplasia in 7 (EH: 4); postencephalitis sequelae in 6 (EH: 2); and Sturge-Weber syndrome in 1 (EH: 1). The mean follow-up was 40.16 ± 17.3 months. Thirty-nine of 49 (79.6%) had favorable outcomes (International League Against Epilepsy class I and II): in EH the total was 19/23 (82.6%) and in OH it was 20/26 (76.9%). There was no difference in the primary outcome between EH and OH (p = 0.15). Significant improvement was seen in the behavioral/quality of life performance, but not in IQ scores in both EH and OH (p < 0.01, no intergroup difference). Blood loss (p = 0.02) and hospital stay (p = 0.049) were less in EH.

CONCLUSIONS

EH was as effective as the open procedure in terms of primary and secondary outcomes. It also resulted in less blood loss and a shorter postoperative hospital stay.