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  • Author or Editor: Sergio García-García x
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Sergio García, Ramon Torné, Jhon Alexander Hoyos, Ana Rodríguez-Hernández, Sergio Amaro, Laura Llull, Antonio López-Rueda and Joaquim Enseñat

OBJECTIVE

Reliable tools are lacking to predict shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) development after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Quantitative volumetric measurement of hemorrhagic blood is a good predictor of SDHC but might be impractical in the clinical setting. Qualitative assessment performed using scales such as the modified Fisher scale (mFisher) and the original Graeb scale (oGraeb) is easier to conduct but provides limited predictive power. In between, the modified Graeb scale (mGraeb) keeps the simplicity of the qualitative scales yet adds assessment of acute hydrocephalus, which might improve SDHC-predicting capabilities. In this study the authors investigated the likely capabilities of the mGraeb and compared them with previously validated methods. This research also aimed to define a tailored mGraeb cutoff point for SDHC prediction.

METHODS

The authors performed retrospective analysis of patients admitted to their institution with the diagnosis of aSAH between May 2013 and April 2016. Out of 168 patients, 78 were included for analysis after the application of predefined exclusion criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the use of all 4 methods (quantitative volumetric assessment and the mFisher, oGraeb, and mGraeb scales) to predict the likelihood of SDHC development based on clinical data and blood amount assessment on initial CT scans.

RESULTS

The mGraeb scale was demonstrated to be the most robust predictor of SDHC, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.848 (95% CI 0.763–0.933). According to the AUC results, the performance of the mGraeb scale was significantly better than that of the oGraeb scale (χ2 = 4.49; p = 0.034) and mFisher scale (χ2 = 7.21; p = 0.007). No statistical difference was found between the AUCs of the mGraeb and the quantitative volumetric measurement models (χ2 = 12.76; p = 0.23), but mGraeb proved to be the simplest model since it showed the lowest Akaike information criterion (66.4), the lowest Bayesian information criterion (71.2), and the highest R2 Nagelkerke coefficient (39.7%). The initial mGraeb showed more than 85% specificity for predicting the development of SDHC in patients presenting with a score of 12 or more points.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the authors’ data, the mGraeb scale is the simplest model that correlates well with SDHC development. Due to limited scientific evidence of treatments aimed at SDHC prevention, we propose an mGraeb score higher than 12 to identify patients at risk with high specificity. This mGraeb cutoff point might also serve as a useful prognostic tool since patients with SDHC after aSAH have worse functional outcomes.

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Sergio García-García, Diego Culebras and Ramón Torné

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Samuel Romero-Vargas, José Luis Ruiz-Sandoval, Arturo Sotomayor-González, Rogelio Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Miguel Angel Celis-López, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Ulises García-González, Raul López-Serna, Victor García-Navarro, Diego Mendez-Rosito, Victor Correa-Correa and Sergio Gómez-Llata

Induced deformation of the cranial vault is one form of permanent alteration of the body that has been performed by human beings from the beginning of history as a way of differentiating from others. These procedures have been observed in different cultures, but were particularly widespread in Mesoamerica. The authors examined and reviewed the historical and anthropological literature of intentional deformation practices in Mayan culture. The Mayans performed different types of cranial deformations and used different techniques and instruments to deform children's heads. The most remarkable morphological alteration is seen in the flattening of the frontal bone. Some archeological investigations link deformation types with specific periods. This article provides a glance at the cultural environment of the Mayans and demonstrates the heterogeneity of this interesting cultural phenomenon, which has changed over time.

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Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T. Lawton, Sonia Yousef, Xiaoming Guo, Jose Juan González Sánchez, Halima Tabani, Sergio García, Jan-Karl Burkhardt and Arnau Benet

Anterior clinoidectomy is a difficult yet essential technique in skull base surgery. Two main techniques (extradural and intradural) with multiple modifications have been proposed to increase efficiency and avoid complications. In this study, the authors sought to develop a hybrid technique based on localization of the optic strut (OS) to combine the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of both techniques.

Ten cadaveric specimens were prepared for surgical simulation. After a standard pterional craniotomy, the anterior clinoid process (ACP) was resected in 2 steps. The segment anterior to the OS was resected extradurally, while the segment posterior to the OS was resected intradurally. The proposed technique was performed in 6 clinical cases to evaluate its safety and efficiency.

Anterior clinoidectomy was successfully performed in all cadaveric specimens and all 6 patients by using the proposed technique. The extradural phase enabled early decompression of the optic nerve while avoiding the adjacent internal carotid artery. The OS was drilled intradurally under direct visualization of the adjacent neurovascular structures. The described landmarks were easily identifiable and applicable in the surgically treated patients. No operative complication was encountered.

A proposed 2-step hybrid technique combines the advantages of the extradural and intradural techniques while avoiding their disadvantages. This technique allows reduced intradural drilling and subarachnoid bone dust deposition. Moreover, the most critical part of the clinoidectomy—that is, drilling of the OS and removal of the body of the ACP—is left for the intradural phase, when critical neurovascular structures can be directly viewed.

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Omar K. Bangash, Megan Thorburn, Jimena Garcia-Vega, Susan Walters, Rick Stell, Sergio E. Starkstein and Christopher R. P. Lind

The caudal zona incerta target within the posterior subthalamic area is an investigational site for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and tremor. The authors report on a patient with tremor-predominant PD who, despite excellent tremor control and an otherwise normal neurological examination, exhibited profound difficulty swimming during stimulation. Over the last 20 years, anecdotal reports have been received of 3 other patients with PD who underwent thalamic or pallidal lesioning or DBS surgery performed at the authors’ center and subsequently drowned. It may be that DBS puts patients at risk for drowning by specifically impairing their ability to swim. Until this finding can be further examined in larger cohorts, patients should be warned to swim under close supervision soon after DBS surgery.

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Ivair Matias Jr., Daoud Hibrahim Elias-Filho, Camila Araújo Bernardino Garcia, Guilherme Henrique Silva, Jorge Mejia, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ana Cláudia Camargo Miranda, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Luíza da Silva Lopes, Norberto Cysne Coimbra and Hélio Rubens Machado

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to describe a new experimental model of hemispherotomy performed on laboratory animals.

METHODS

Twenty-six male young adult Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (surgery and control). The nonfluorescent anterograde neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 MW) was microinjected into the motor cortex area (M1) according to The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates atlas to identify pathways and fibers disconnected after the experimental hemispherectomy. SPECT tomographic images of 99mTc hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime were obtained to verify perfusion in functioning areas of the disconnected and intact brain. A reproducible and validated surgical procedure is described in detail, including exact measurements and anatomical relationships. An additional 30 rodents (n = 10 rats per group) were divided into naïve, sham, and hemispherotomy groups and underwent the rotarod test.

RESULTS

Cortico-cortical neural pathways were identified crossing the midline and contacting neuronal perikarya in the contralateral brain hemisphere in controls, but not in animals undergoing hemispherotomy. There was an absence of perfusion in the left side of the brain of the animals undergoing hemispherotomy. Motor performance was significantly affected by brain injuries, increasing the number of attempts to maintain balance on the moving cylinder in the rotarod test at 10 and 30 days after the hemispherotomy, with a tendency to minimize the motor performance deficit over time.

CONCLUSIONS

The present findings show that the technique reproduced neural disconnection with minimal resection of brain parenchyma in young adult rats, thereby duplicating the hemispherotomy procedures in human patients.

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Ivair Matias Jr., Daoud Hibrahim Elias-Filho, Camila Araújo Bernardino Garcia, Guilherme Henrique Silva, Jorge Mejia, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ana Cláudia Camargo Miranda, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Luíza da Silva Lopes, Norberto Cysne Coimbra and Hélio Rubens Machado

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to describe a new experimental model of hemispherotomy performed on laboratory animals.

METHODS

Twenty-six male young adult Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (surgery and control). The nonfluorescent anterograde neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 MW) was microinjected into the motor cortex area (M1) according to The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates atlas to identify pathways and fibers disconnected after the experimental hemispherectomy. SPECT tomographic images of 99mTc hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime were obtained to verify perfusion in functioning areas of the disconnected and intact brain. A reproducible and validated surgical procedure is described in detail, including exact measurements and anatomical relationships. An additional 30 rodents (n = 10 rats per group) were divided into naïve, sham, and hemispherotomy groups and underwent the rotarod test.

RESULTS

Cortico-cortical neural pathways were identified crossing the midline and contacting neuronal perikarya in the contralateral brain hemisphere in controls, but not in animals undergoing hemispherotomy. There was an absence of perfusion in the left side of the brain of the animals undergoing hemispherotomy. Motor performance was significantly affected by brain injuries, increasing the number of attempts to maintain balance on the moving cylinder in the rotarod test at 10 and 30 days after the hemispherotomy, with a tendency to minimize the motor performance deficit over time.

CONCLUSIONS

The present findings show that the technique reproduced neural disconnection with minimal resection of brain parenchyma in young adult rats, thereby duplicating the hemispherotomy procedures in human patients.