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WingSpan Stent System in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: clinical experience with midterm follow-up results

Kivilcim Yavuz, Serdar Geyik, Isil Saatci, and H. Saruhan Cekirge

Object

The WingSpan stent is a new self-expandable neurovascular stent designed for endovascular treatment of intracranial atheromatous lesions. The authors report their experience with the use of this stent for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

Methods

Thirty-seven patients with 40 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms were treated using the WingSpan stent. Twenty-two aneurysms (55%) were small and 18 (45%) were large or giant. In all but 4 aneurysms, embolization was completed by packing the aneurysm sac with platinum coils. In 4 dissecting aneurysms that were fusiform or too small and wide necked to be catheterized, the stent was used alone. In these cases, the stent bridged the aneurysm neck to allow for flow redirection and the potential stent-induced endothelization effect.

Results

Follow-up angiograms obtained in 3 of 4 aneurysms, treated with only stent placement, demonstrated aneurysmal thrombosis and parent artery remodeling in 2 patients and moderate decrease in size in 1. Follow-up angiography obtained at 6 months to 1 year in 31 aneurysms after stent-supported coil embolization demonstrated complete occlusion in 23 aneurysms (74.2%) with a progressive thrombosis rate of 66.7% (10 of 15 aneurysms), and a recanalization rate of 16.1%.

Conclusions

In treating wide-necked intracranial aneurysms, the WingSpan Stent System is very flexible, secure, and effective. Its delivery system is very easy and exact in that it exerts higher outward radial force, thus providing an excellent conformability and a strong scaffold to hold the coils in place. It may offer an effective treatment when used alone in some fusiform or very wide-necked, small dissecting aneurysms in which other surgical or endovascular treatment strategies are not deemed feasible.

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Endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations with prolonged intranidal Onyx injection technique: long-term results in 350 consecutive patients with completed endovascular treatment course

Clinical article

Isil Saatci, Serdar Geyik, Kivilcim Yavuz, and H. Saruhan Cekirge

Object

The purpose of this study was to present the authors' clinical experience and long-term angiographic and clinical follow-up results in 350 patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated using prolonged intranidal Onyx injection with a very slow “staged” reflux technique described by the authors.

Methods

Three hundred and fifty consecutive patients with brain AVMs treated using Onyx between 1999 and 2008 and in whom definitive status for endovascular treatment was reached are presented. There were 206 (59%) male and 144 (41%) female patients, with a mean age of 34 years. There were 607 endovascular sessions performed. Onyx was the only agent used for intranidal injections in all patients, but in 42 patients high-concentration N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue was used adjunctively to close high-flow direct arteriovenous intra- or perinidal fistulas, or when a feeding vessel or nidus perforation and/or dissection occurred.

Results

Angiographically confirmed obliteration was achieved in 179 patients (51%) with only endovascular treatment; 1 patient died due to intracranial hemorrhage after the treatment. Twenty-two patients underwent resection, and 136 patients were sent to radiosurgery after endovascular treatment. In 4 patients embolization therapy was discontinued, and 5 additional patients refused the suggested complementary surgery. In all 178 surviving patients who had angiographically confirmed AVM obliteration by embolization alone, 1–8 years of control angiography (mean 47 months) confirmed stable obliteration, except for 2 patients in whom a very small recruitment was noted in the 1st year on control angiography studies, despite initial apparent total obliteration (recanalization rate 1.1%). In the entire series, 5 patients died; the mortality rate was 1.4%. The permanent morbidity rate was 7.1%.

Conclusions

With the prolonged intranidal injection technique described herein, Onyx allows the practitioner to achieve higher rates of anatomical cures compared with the cure rates obtained previously with other embolic agents. More importantly, due to this technique's much more effective intranidal penetration, it allows high-grade AVMs to be made radiosurgically treatable in a group of patients for whom there has been no treatment alternative.

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HyperForm balloon remodeling in the endovascular treatment of anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and anterior communicating artery aneurysms: clinical and angiographic follow-up results in 800 consecutive patients

Clinical article

H. Saruhan Cekirge, Kivilcim Yavuz, Serdar Geyik, and Isil Saatci

Object

The purpose of this paper was to present the safety, efficacy, and clinical/angiographic follow-up results of HyperForm balloon-assisted endosaccular coil occlusion of distal anterior circulation bifurcation aneurysms.

Methods

Over a 7-year period, the authors treated 864 middle cerebral artery, distal anterior cerebral artery bifurcation, and anterior communicating artery aneurysms by means of coil embolization with HyperForm balloon assistance in 800 patients. In 37 aneurysms, 2 HyperForm balloons were used simultaneously for remodeling.

Results

The overall mortality rate was 7.1%, including 1.4% procedural mortality. Various neurological deficits were present at discharge in 8.9% of the patients, and 4.4% had permanent disabling morbidity 6 months posttreatment (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 2). Thromboembolic complications developed during the treatment of 15 aneurysms (1.7%) causing morbidity or mortality in 10 cases (1.3%). There were 14 intraoperative perforations (1.6%). In all 14 cases, the HyperForm balloon saved patients from severe bleeding. The perforation led to morbidity or mortality in 3 cases (0.4%); there were no negative consequences in 11. There were 726 patients with 757 aneurysms (87.6%) available for follow-up. Control angiograms were obtained at 6 months in 386 patients, at 1 year in 267, and at 2 years in 104, revealing an 82% complete obliteration rate according to the most recent follow-up angiograms.

Conclusions

The satisfactory results obtained in this experience demonstrate that HyperForm balloon remodeling provides strong benefits for the endovascular management of middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and anterior communicating artery aneurysms without increasing the risk of treatment. Not only does this technique allow for the safe treatment of these aneurysms, but it also expands the indications of endovascular treatment to include aneurysms that otherwise cannot be treated with simple coil embolization.

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Editorial: Balloon remodeling

Giuseppe Lanzino

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Comparison of bioactive coils and bare platinum coils for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a matched-pair analysis

Clinical article

Serdar Geyik, Ozgur Ertugrul, Kivilcim Yavuz, Pinar Geyik, Isil Saatci, and H. Saruhan Cekirge

Object

The primary goal of this matched-pair analysis was to evaluate the durability of the treatment results with Cerecyte coils in comparison with that of bare platinum coils in terms of angiographic occlusion rates at follow-up.

Methods

Eighty aneurysms treated with Cerecyte coils were included in this study to carry out a matched-pair analysis. Every aneurysm treated with Cerecyte coils was matched with an aneurysm treated with bare platinum coils. Matching of the aneurysms was done according to the aneurysm size, location, neck size, initial occlusion grade, and clinical presentation.

Results

The initial treatment results were similar in both groups as part of a matching protocol. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant difference in the durability of occlusion in aneurysms that showed Raymond Class I obliteration on follow-up angiograms (69 [86.2%] in the Cerecyte group vs 51 [63.8%] in the control group, p = 0.002). Further thrombosis to Raymond Class I occlusions was higher in the Cerecyte group (17 [77.3%] of 22 vs 8 [36.4%] of 22 aneurysms).

Conclusions

Cerecyte coils provide further thrombosis and more durable results than bare platinum coils following coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms.

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Immediate and midterm follow-up results of using an electrodetachable, fully retrievable SOLO stent system in the endovascular coil occlusion of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms

Kivilcim Yavuz, Serdar Geyik, Almila Gulsun Pamuk, Osman Koc, Isil Saatci, and H. Saruhan Cekirge

Object

Stent-assisted embolization is an alternative endovascular treatment method for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Currently available stents have the limitations of poor radial force, difficult delivery systems, and lack of full retrievability. The authors report on their preliminary experience with the use of a new, fully retrievable, self-expanding neurovascular stent, which has a high radial force and easy delivery system, combined with coil or Onyx embolization for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms, including 6-month follow-up data.

Methods

Fifteen patients with 18 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms were treated using the SOLO stent system and detachable platinum coils. Aneurysms were located at the posterior communicating artery (seven lesions), midbasilar artery (one lesion), internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation (one lesion), ICA–ophthalmic artery segment (eight lesions), and posterior cerebral artery (one lesion). Eleven aneurysms were small, six were large, and one was giant. Only one of these aneurysms was in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage; balloon remodeling alone failed to keep the coils in the aneurysm sac.

Results

Only one stent required retrieving and repositioning after it had been fully deployed, and retrieval was easy and successful. No thromboembolic complication, dissection/rupture, or vasospasm occured during stent placement. Follow-up angiograms obtained at 6 months posttreatment in the 18 aneurysms demonstrated that all stents were patent with no evidence of intimal hyperplasia or stenosis. In all cases but one, 100% lesion occlusion was observed at the 6-month control angiography examination. Only one aneurysm had recanalized.

Conclusions

The fully retrievable self-expandible SOLO stent is a feasible, secure, and effective system with a high radial force and ease of delivery in treating wide-necked intracranial aneurysms in combination with coil embolization.

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Intrasaccular combination of metallic coils and Onyx liquid embolic agent for the endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

H. Saruhan Cekirge, Isil Saatci, Serdar Geyik, Kivilcim Yavuz, Halil Öztürk, and Gülsün Pamuk

Object

The aim of this study was to report on a novel technique in which metallic embolization coils were combined with the Onyx liquid embolic agent in the aneurysm sac to achieve a more durable result after endovascular treatment. This therapeutic procedure was performed in selected cases in which, based on the authors’ experiences, either coil embolization or Onyx alone would likely have failed. The authors report long-term clinical and angiographic follow-up results in 20 consecutive intracranial aneurysms treated using this combination for defined indications.

Methods

Twenty aneurysms in 20 patients were treated with a combination of embolic coils and Onyx. Four aneurysms were giant; 13, large; and three, small. This new technique was used when standard Onyx or coil treatment with balloon assistance was determined to involve a higher possibility of recanalization, because either an adjunctive stent insertion could not be performed or the Onyx technique could not be used due to an unsuccessful seal test or intraaneurysm balloon prolapse. In one case, an adjunctive stent was placed before coil placement and Onyx deposition to control the material in the sac of the aneurysm, which had a fusiform neck.

All aneurysms were completely occluded after using this technique. No clinical or technical adverse events occurred in any of the cases. Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients: 3-year studies in six patients, 2-year studies in five, and 1-year studies in nine. None of these studies demonstrated aneurysm regrowth or parent artery occlusion.

Conclusions

The combination of the embolic coils and the Onyx liquid embolic agent provides very durable aneurysm occlusion for defined indications.

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Editorial

Onyx and arteriovenous malformations

Mohamed Samy Elhammady and Roberto C. Heros