Orbital angioleiomyoma is generally considered a rare tumor; approximately 40 cases have been reported. However, after their experience with 6 consecutive cases in their single institution during 3 years, the authors speculate that the incidence of orbital angioleiomyomas is possibly underestimated.
A 34-year-old female presented with progressive exophthalmos of 2 years’ duration. Orbital computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed orbital tumor with partial and heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Technetium-99m red blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography showed positive perfusion in the late blood-pool phase, which was exactly consistent with the finding of a cavernous hemangioma. Under the impression of a cavernous hemangioma, the authors accessed the mass with an endoscopic endonasal approach and completely removed it without neurological deficit. Pathological examination revealed that the final diagnosis was an angioleiomyoma with positive immunostaining results for smooth muscle actin (SMA).
The incidence of orbital angioleiomyomas may not be very low, as these lesions have possibly been misdiagnosed as orbital cavernous hemangiomas because of their histological similarity. Preoperative presumption and differentiation from cavernous hemangiomas are very challenging because of the rarity of orbital angioleiomyoma and similar radiological findings. SMA immunostaining may be critical to differentiate orbital angioleiomyomas from cavernous hemangiomas.