Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Seok-Gu Kang x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee, Won Seok Chang, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a new combined entity for which a soft-tissue–type grading system, ranging from grades I to III, has been introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. The results of the treatment of this new disease entity require evaluation.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reevaluated the pathological findings and medical records of patients with SFT/HPC. This study included 60 patients (27 men and 33 women, median age 42.5 years, range 13–69 years) treated at Severance Hospital between February 1981 and February 2016. Four, 40, and 16 patients were categorized as having SFT/HPC grades I, II, and III, respectively. Among these patients, SFTs diagnosed in 7 patients were regraded as grades I (n = 4), II (n = 2), and III (n = 1).

RESULTS

The median overall survival (OS) was 73.2 months (range 1.4–275.7 months), and the progression-free survival (PFS) after the first operation was 53.8 months (range 1.4–217.7 months). Six patients (10%) showed extracranial metastasis during a median period of 103.7 months (range 31.9–182.3 months). Nineteen patients (31.7%) presented with tumor recurrences. The patients in the grade III group had shorter PFS and OS, as well as a shorter period to extracranial metastasis, compared with patients in the grade II group. In the grade II group, patients who underwent gross-total resection showed longer PFS than those who underwent subtotal resection; however, there was no difference in OS. Patients who underwent adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after surgery had longer PFS compared with that of patients who did not undergo adjuvant RT.

CONCLUSIONS

The SFT/HPC grade I group showed a relatively benign course compared with those of the other groups. The grade III group presented a course with a more aggressive nature than that of the grade II group. In the grade II group, the extent of resection and adjuvant RT was significantly associated with longer PFS. The long-term follow-up and periodic systemic evaluation are mandatory to detect systemic metastasis.

Restricted access

Tae Hoon Roh, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Kyoung Su Sung, Hun Ho Park, Se Hoon Kim, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Chang-Ok Suh, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Following resection of glioblastoma (GBM), microscopic remnants of the GBM tumor remaining in nearby tissue cause tumor recurrence more often than for other types of tumors, even after gross-total resection (GTR). Although surgical oncologists traditionally resect some of the surrounding normal tissue, whether further removal of nearby tissue may improve survival in GBM patients is unknown. In this single-center retrospective study, the authors assessed whether lobectomy confers a survival benefit over GTR without lobectomy when treating GBMs in the noneloquent area.

METHODS

The authors selected 40 patients who had undergone GTR of a histopathologically diagnosed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wild type GBM in the right frontal or temporal lobe and divided the patients into 2 groups according to whether GTR of the tumor involved lobectomy, defined as a supratotal resection (SupTR group, n = 20) or did not (GTR group, n = 20). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores were compared between groups (p ≤ 0.05 for statistically significant differences).

RESULTS

The median postoperative PFS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 11.5 months (95% CI 8.8–14.2) and SupTR group, 30.7 months (95% CI 4.3–57.1; p = 0.007). The median postoperative OS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 18.7 months (95% CI 14.3–23.1) and SupTR group, 44.1 months (95% CI 25.1–63.1; p = 0.040). The mean postoperative KPS scores (GTR, 76.5; SupTR, 77.5; p = 0.904) were not significantly different. In multivariate analysis, survival for the SupTR group was significantly longer than that for the GTR group in terms of both PFS (HR 0.230; 95% CI 0.090–0.583; p = 0.002) and OS (HR 0.247; 95% CI 0.086–0.704; p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

In cases of completely resectable, noneloquent-area GBMs, SupTR provides superior PFS and OS without negatively impacting patient performance.

Restricted access

Seok-Gu Kang, Do Sung Yoo, Kyoung Suok Cho, Dal Soo Kim, Eon Duck Chang, Pil Woo Huh, and Moon Chan Kim

✓ Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) associated with Dandy–Walker malformation is a very rare congenital neurodysplasia with the same origin. Primary intracranial melanocytic and dermoid tumors are also benign congenital lesions that usually arise from the leptomeninges and are formed by the inclusion of cutaneous ectoderm at the time of neural tube closure. The authors describe a patient with coexisting intracranial meningeal melanocytoma, NCM with Dandy–Walker malformation, and intraventricular dermoid tumor.

Restricted access

Pil-Woo Huh, Do-Sung Yoo, Kyung-Suok Cho, Chun-Kun Park, Seok-Gu Kang, Young-Sup Park, Dal-Soo Kim, and Moon-Chan Kim

Object

The various terms used to describe subdural fluid collection—“external hydrocephalus,” “subdural hygroma,” “subdural effusion,” “benign subdural collection,” and “extraventricular obstructive hydrocephalus”—reflect the confusion surrounding the diagnoses of these diseases. Differentiating external hydrocephalus from simple subdural hygroma may be difficult, but the former appears to be a distinct clinical entity separate from the latter. In this report, the authors present a diagnostic method for differentiating external hydrocephalus from simple subdural hygroma, based on their clinical experience in treating subdural fluid collection after mild head trauma.

Methods

Twenty patients with subdural fluid collection after mild head trauma were included in this study. Ventricle size was measured using a modified frontal horn index (mFHI); that is, the largest width of the frontal horns divided by the bicortical distance in the same plane, instead of the inner table distance. Bur hole trephination was performed on the appearance of a subdural fluid collection thicker than 15 mm on computed tomography (CT), persistent (longer than 4 weeks) or increasing in size, and accompanied by neurological symptoms (confusion or memory impairment). During the procedure, subdural pressure was measured using a manometer before opening the dura mater. Subdural pressure varied among the patients, ranging from 3 to 27.5 cm H2O. Four patients with a subdural pressure greater than 15 cm H2O had hydrocephalus after surgery (p < 0.05). Hydrocephalus developed in a pediatric patient (2 years old) with a subdural pressure of 12 cm H2O. All of the patients in whom hydrocephalus developed after bur hole trephination had had enlarged ventricles (mFHI > 33%) on preoperative CT scans.

Conclusions

Monitoring subdural pressure may be a valuable tool for differentiating subdural hygroma from external hydrocephalus in patients with mild head trauma. Additionally, the mFHI reflects the nature of the subdural collection more accurately than the standard frontal horn index.

Restricted access

Kyung-Jae Park, Shin-Hyuk Kang, Yang-Seok Chae, Mi-Ok Yu, Tai-Hyoung Cho, Jung-Keun Suh, Hoon-Kap Lee, and Yong-Gu Chung

Object

Peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) is associated with perioperative neurological deficits in patients with meningiomas. However, the pathogenesis of meningioma-associated edema remains unclear. In the present study, the authors investigated the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its relationship with PTBE in resected meningiomas.

Methods

Thirty-six benign meningiomas obtained in 36 patients were studied retrospectively. Edema volume was assessed on MR images, and an edema index (EI) was calculated. Interleukin-6 mRNA and protein expression were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining.

Results

Peritumoral brain edema was found in 16 patients (44%). Neither age, sex, histological subtype, nor tumor location were related to PTBE. The level of IL-6 mRNA was 7.72 times greater in the edema group (EI > 0.2) than in the nonedema group (EI < 0.2; p = 0.011). On immunohistochemical analysis, IL-6 protein was found localized in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, and was detected in 12 (75%) of 16 cases of edematous meningiomas, but in only 6 (30%) of 20 nonedematous cases. There was a significant correlation between the severity of PTBE and IL-6 expression (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

The authors' results in this study indicate that IL-6 expression may contribute to the development of brain edema associated with meningiomas.

Restricted access

Eui Hyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Ji Woong Oh, Ju-Seong Kim, Jin Sook Yoon, Ju Hyung Moon, Seok-Gu Kang, Jong Hee Chang, and Tae Hoon Roh

OBJECTIVE

The insula is a complex anatomical structure. Accessing tumors in the insula remains a challenge due to its anatomical complexity and the high chance of morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) to the insular region based on a cadaveric study.

METHODS

One cadaveric head was used to study the anatomy of the insula and surrounding vessels. Then, anatomical dissection was performed in 4 human cadaveric heads using a dedicated endoscopic system with the aid of neuronavigation guidance. To assess the extent of resection, CT scanning was performed before and after dissection. The insular region was directly exposed by a classic transcranial approach to check the extent of resection from the side with a classic transcranial approach.

RESULTS

The entire procedure consisted of two phases: an extradural orbital phase and an intradural sylvian phase. After eyelid incision, the sphenoid bone and orbital roof were extensively drilled out with exposure of the frontal and temporal dural layers. After making a dural window, the anterior ramus of the sylvian fissure was opened and dissected. The M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was identified and traced posterolaterally. A small corticectomy was performed on the posterior orbital gyrus. Through the window between the lateral lenticulostriate arteries and M2, the cortex and medulla of the insula were resected in an anteroposterior direction without violation of the M2 segment of the MCA or its major branches. When confirmed by pterional craniotomy, the sylvian fissure and the MCA were found to be anatomically preserved. After validation of the feasibility and safety based on a cadaveric study, the ETOA was successfully performed in a patient with a high-grade glioma (WHO grade III) in the right insula.

CONCLUSIONS

The transorbital route can be considered a potential option to access tumors located in the insula. Using an ETOA, the MCA and its major branches were identified and preserved while removal was performed along the long axis of the insula. In particular, lesions in the anterior part of the insula are most benefited by this approach. Because this approach was implemented in only one patient, additional discussion and further verification is required.

Restricted access

Dong Gyu Jang, Seok-Gu Kang, Sang Bok Lee, Do-Sung Yoo, Pil-Woo Huh, Kyoung-Souk Cho, Dal-Soo Kim, Chun Kun Park, and Joon Ki Kang

✓ Until now, calcified cephalhematoma has been treated by excision of the lesion and the use of an onlay autograft. The authors report their use of a less complicated alternative, simple excision and periosteal reattachment, in a 3-month-old male infant. They excised the calcified cap of cephalhematoma and reattached the periosteum to the exposed bone surface instead of using an onlay autograft technique. A follow-up CT scan demonstrated a smooth skull contour and good cosmetic appearance.

The authors note that this is the first report of the successful use of simple excision and periosteal reattachment for the treatment of a case of calcified cephalhematoma in which there was a depressed area after the calcified cap was removed. They conclude that in cases of calcified cephalhematoma it may be unnecessary to perform a complicated cranioplasty with bone harvested from the top of the calcification.

Restricted access

Wan-Yee Teo, Jennifer Ross, Robert J. Bollo, Wan-Tew Seow, Ah-Moy Tan, Seok-Gu Kang, Dong-Seok Kim, Xiao-Nan Li, Ching C. Lau, Carrie A. Mohila, Adekunle M. Adesina, and Jack M. Su

The authors describe a series of 15 intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs) excluding mature teratomas; 3 cases in children younger than 3 years of age who were treated at 3 different international institutions over the course of 20 years, and 12 from a PubMed search. These tumors, with possible in utero origins, often occur in atypical locations. The clinical behavior differed significantly from these tumors' counterparts in older children. In this young age group germinoma is highly aggressive, whereas nongerminomatous germ cell tumors may be cured without radiotherapy. Ongoing genomic studies reveal insights to attain an understanding of the biology of these tumors. New treatment strategies are needed to improve outcomes for IGCTs in this age group, particularly for germinomas.