Cerebral palsy (CP) spinal deformities encompass a spectrum of deformities that are often initially treated nonoperatively, only to result in progression of scoliotic curves and further morbidity. Various surgical interventions have been devised to address the progressive curvature of the spine. This endeavor cannot be taken lightly and at times can be encumbered by prior treatments such as the use of baclofen pumps or dorsal rhizotomies. Care of these patients requires a multidisciplinary approach and comprehensive preoperative and postoperative management, including nutritional status, orthopedic assessment of functional level with specific emphasis on the hips and pelvic obliquity, and wheelchair modifications. The surgical techniques in CP scoliosis have progressively evolved from the classic Luque-Galveston fixation methods, the use of unit rods, and lately the use of pedicle screws, to modern sacropelvic fixation. With the latter method, the spinal deformity in patients with CP can usually be almost completely corrected.
Sean M. Jones-Quaidoo, Scott Yang and Vincent Arlet
Sean M. Jones-Quaidoo, Mladen Djurasovic, R. Kirk Owens II and Leah Y. Carreon
Recent studies have reported the incidence of superior facet joint violation using percutaneous techniques. These techniques have not been compared with the open midline approach. An increased incidence of superior facet violation may lead to adjacent-segment disease. In this paper, the authors' goal is to compare the rate of superior facet violation with the use of percutaneously placed pedicle screws versus midline approach open placement.
Patients who underwent a single-level fusion using a percutaneous approach from L-1 to S-1 who had undergone CT scanning within 1 year after surgery were identified. A cohort who underwent open fusion matched by level of surgery was identified. All CT scans were reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained spine surgeons to determine the degree of facet violation. The final categorization for each screw was based on the most frequent reading among the 6 evaluations. The Fisher test was used to determine the association of facet violation with approach.
There were 66 patients in each group. Patients in the Percutaneous group were younger (mean 42.5 years) than those in the Open group (mean 57.8 years, p = 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference in sex distribution, surgical levels fused, or time between surgery and CT scan between the groups. Thirty-six (13.6%) of 264 screws in the percutaneous and 16 (6%) of 263 screws in the Open group were in the facet joint (p = 0.005). Of these, 17 (12%) of the 132 proximal screws in the percutaneous and 7 (5%) of the 131 proximal screws in the Open group were in the facet joint (p = 0.052).
The use of a percutaneous method to insert pedicle screws results in a statistically significantly higher incidence of facet joint violation, even if only proximal screws are considered. Further studies are needed to determine if this leads to a higher incidence of symptomatic adjacent-level disease.
Sean M. Jones-Quaidoo, Travis Hunt, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Vincent Arlet
✓ The authors report on the return of neurological and urological function in an adolescent after revision surgery for spondyloptosis 5 years after the index procedure for high-grade spondylolisthesis. This 16-year-old girl with Grade 3 spondylolisthesis was initially treated with a posterolateral reduction and fusion. Following surgery, cauda equina syndrome symptoms developed and did not resolve despite subsequent surgical decompression. Five years later, because of worsening radicular pain, an inability to walk for significant distances, and no resolution of persistent bladder dysfunction, the patient presented with spondyloptosis.
Posterior decompression, sacral dome osteotomy, and posterior reduction were performed and followed 3 days later with the placement of an anterior fibula autograft. Her bladder function recovered within 6 months, and at the 18-month follow up the patient reported a normal ability to ambulate.