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Caio M. Matias, Leonardo A. Frizon, Sean J. Nagel, Darlene A. Lobel and André G. Machado

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ aim in this study was to evaluate placement accuracy and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation devices with the aid of frame-based stereotaxy and intraoperative MRI after induction of general anesthesia.

METHODS

Thirty-three patients with movement disorders (27 with Parkinson’s disease) underwent implantation of unilateral or bilateral deep brain stimulation systems (64 leads total). All patients underwent the implantation procedure with standard frame-based techniques under general anesthesia and without microelectrode recording. MR images were acquired immediately after the procedure and fused to the preoperative plan to verify accuracy. To evaluate clinical outcome, different scales were used to assess quality of life (EQ-5D), activities of daily living (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] part II), and motor function (UPDRS part III during off- and on-medication and off- and on-stimulation states). Accuracy was assessed by comparing the coordinates (x, y, and z) from the preoperative plan and coordinates from the tip of the lead on intraoperative MRI and postoperative CT scans.

RESULTS

The EQ-5D score improved or remained stable in 71% of the patients. When in the off-medication/on-stimulation state, all patients reported significant improvement in UPDRS III score at the last follow-up (p < 0.001), with a reduction of 25.2 points (46.3%) (SD 14.7 points and 23.5%, respectively). There was improvement or stability in the UPDRS II scores for 68% of the Parkinson’s patients. For 2 patients, the stereotactic error was deemed significant based on intraoperative MRI findings. In these patients, the lead was removed and replaced after correcting for the error during the same procedure. Postoperative lead revision was not necessary in any of the patients. Based on findings from the last intraoperative MRI study, the mean difference between the tip of the electrode and the planned target was 0.82 mm (SD 0.5 mm, p = 0.006) for the x-axis, 0.67 mm (SD 0.5 mm, p < 0.001) for the y-axis, and 0.78 mm (SD 0.7 mm, p = 0.008) for the z-axis. On average, the euclidian distance was 1.52 mm (SD 0.6 mm). In patients who underwent bilateral implantation, accuracy was further evaluated comparing the first implanted side and the second implanted side. There was a significant mediolateral (x-axis) difference (p = 0.02) in lead accuracy between the first (mean 1.02 mm, SD 0.57 mm) and the second (mean 0.66 mm, SD 0.50 mm) sides. However, no significant difference was found for the y- and z-axes (p = 0.10 and p = 0.89, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Frame-based DBS implantation under general anesthesia with intraoperative MRI verification of lead location is safe, accurate, precise, and effective compared with standard implantation performed using awake intraoperative physiology. More clinical trials are necessary to directly compare outcomes of each technique.

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Leonardo A. Frizon, Sean J. Nagel, Francis J. May, Jianning Shao, Andres L. Maldonado-Naranjo, Hubert H. Fernandez and Andre G. Machado

OBJECTIVE

The number of patients who benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) has increased significantly since the therapy was first approved by the FDA. Suboptimal outcomes, infection, or device failure are risks of the procedure and may require lead removal or repositioning. The authors present here the results of their series of revision and reimplantation surgeries.

METHODS

The data were reviewed from all DBS intracranial lead removals, revisions, or reimplantations among patients with PD over a 6-year period at the authors’ institution. The indications for these procedures were categorized as infection, suboptimal outcome, and device failure. Motor outcomes as well as lead location were analyzed before removal and after reimplant or revision.

RESULTS

The final sample included 25 patients who underwent 34 lead removals. Thirteen patients had 18 leads reimplanted after removal. There was significant improvement in the motor scores after revision surgery among the patients who had the lead revised for a suboptimal outcome (p = 0.025). The mean vector distance of the new lead location compared to the previous location was 2.16 mm (SD 1.17), measured on an axial plane 3.5 mm below the anterior commissure–posterior commissure line. When these leads were analyzed by subgroup, the mean distance was 1.67 mm (SD 0.83 mm) among patients treated for infection and 2.73 mm (SD 1.31 mm) for those with suboptimal outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with PD who undergo reimplantation surgery due to suboptimal outcome may experience significant benefits. Reimplantation after surgical infection seems feasible and overall safe.

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Bryan S. Lee, Jaes Jones, Min Lang, Rebecca Achey, Lu Dai, Darlene A. Lobel, Sean J. Nagel, Andre G. Machado and Francois Bethoux

OBJECTIVE

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes demyelination and axonal loss. Walking difficulties are a common and debilitating symptom of MS; they are usually caused by spastic paresis of the lower extremities. Although intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment for spasticity in MS, there is limited published evidence regarding its effects on ambulation. The goal of this study was to characterize ITB therapy outcomes in ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS

Data from 47 ambulatory patients with MS who received ITB therapy were analyzed retrospectively. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth Scale, Spasm Frequency Scale, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and the Timed 25-Foot Walk. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for changes in outcome measures between baseline and posttreatment (6 months and 1 year). Significance was set at p < 0.05. Descriptive data are expressed as the mean ± SD, and results of the repeated-measures ANOVA tests and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test are expressed as the mean ± SEM.

RESULTS

There was a statistically significant reduction in the following variables: 1) aggregate lower-extremity Modified Ashworth Scale scores (from 14.8 ± 1.0 before ITB therapy to 5.8 ± 0.8 at 6 months posttreatment and 6.4 ± 0.9 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 2) Numeric Pain Rating Scale scores (4.4 ± 0.5 before ITB, 2.8 ± 0.5 at 6 months, and 2.4 ± 0.4 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 3) spasm frequency (45.7% of the patients reported a spasm frequency of ≥ 1 event per hour before ITB therapy, whereas 15.6% and 4.3% of the patients reported the same at 6 months and 1 year posttreatment, respectively [p < 0.05]); and 4) the number of oral medications taken for spasticity (p < 0.05). Of the 47 patients, 34 remained ambulatory at 6 months, and 32 at 1 year posttreatment. There was no statistically significant change in performance on the Timed 25-Foot Walk test over time for those patients who remained ambulatory.

CONCLUSIONS

In this retrospective study, the authors found that ITB therapy is effective in reducing spasticity and related symptoms in ambulatory patients with MS. Because the use of ITB therapy is increasing in ambulatory patients with MS, randomized, prospective studies are important to help provide a more useful characterization of the effects of ITB therapy on ambulation.

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Joshua L. Golubovsky, Hong Li, Arbaz Momin, Jianning Shao, Maxwell Y. Lee, Leonardo A. Frizon, Olivia Hogue, Benjamin Walter, André G. Machado and Sean J. Nagel

OBJECTIVE

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological movement disorder that is commonly treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in advanced stages. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect time to placement of a second-sided DBS lead for PD when a unilateral lead is initially placed for asymmetrical presentation. The decision whether to initially perform unilateral or bilateral DBS is largely based on physician and/or patient preference.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with PD undergoing initial unilateral DBS for asymmetrical disease between January 1999 and December 2017 at the authors’ institution. Patients treated with DBS for essential tremor or other conditions were excluded. Variables collected included demographics at surgery, time since diagnosis, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-III), patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes, side of operation, DBS target, intraoperative complications, and date of follow-up. Paired t-tests were used to assess mean changes in UPDRS-III. Cox proportional hazards analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method were used to determine factors associated with time to second lead insertion over 5 years.

RESULTS

The final cohort included 105 patients who underwent initial unilateral DBS for asymmetrical PD; 59% of patients had a second-sided lead placed within 5 years with a median time of 34 months. Factors found to be significantly associated with early second-sided DBS included patient age 65 years or younger, globus pallidus internus (GPi) target, and greater off-medication reduction in UPDRS-III score following initial surgery. Older age was also found to be associated with a smaller preoperative UPDRS-III levodopa responsiveness score and with a smaller preoperative to postoperative medication-off UPDRS-III change.

CONCLUSIONS

Younger patients, those undergoing GPi-targeted unilateral DBS, and patients who responded better to the initial DBS were more likely to undergo early second-sided lead placement. Therefore, these patients, and patients who are more responsive to medication preoperatively (as a proxy for DBS responsiveness), may benefit from consideration of initial bilateral DBS.

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Rebecca L. Achey, Erin Yamamoto, Daniel Sexton, Christine Hammer, Bryan S. Lee, Robert S. Butler, Nicolas R. Thompson, Sean J. Nagel, Andre G. Machado and Darlene A. Lobel

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for movement disorders such as idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). However, some patients who demonstrate benefit on objective motor function tests do not experience postoperative improvement in depression or anxiety, 2 important components of quality of life (QOL). Thus, to examine other possible explanations for the lack of a post-DBS correlation between improved objective motor function and decreased depression or anxiety, the authors investigated whether patient perceptions of motor symptom severity might contribute to disease-associated depression and anxiety.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective chart review of PD and ET patients who had undergone DBS at the Cleveland Clinic in the period from 2009 to 2013. Patient demographics, diagnosis (PD, ET), motor symptom severity, and QOL measures (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] for depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale [GAD-7], and patient-assessed tremor scores) were collected at 4 time points: preoperatively, postoperatively, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up. Multivariable prediction models with solutions for fixed effects were constructed to assess the correlation of predictor variables with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores. Predictor variables included age, sex, visit time, diagnosis (PD vs ET), patient-assessed tremor, physician-reported tremor, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) score, and patient-assessed tremor over time.

RESULTS

Seventy PD patients and 17 ET patients were included in this analysis. Mean postoperative and 1-year follow-up UPDRS-III and physician-reported tremor scores were significantly decreased compared with preoperative scores (p < 0.0001). Two-year follow-up physician-reported tremor was also significantly decreased from preoperative scores (p < 0.0001). Only a diagnosis of PD (p = 0.0047) and the patient-assessed tremor rating (p < 0.0001) were significantly predictive of depression. A greater time since surgery, in general, significantly decreased anxiety scores (p < 0.0001) except when a worsening of patient-assessed tremor was reported over the same time period (p < 0.0013).

CONCLUSIONS

Patient-assessed tremor severity alone was predictive of depression in PD and ET following DBS. This finding suggests that a patient’s perception of illness plays a greater role in depression than objective physical disability regardless of the time since surgical intervention. In addition, while anxiety may be attenuated by DBS, patient-assessed return of tremor over time can increase anxiety, highlighting the importance of long-term follow-up for behavioral health features in chronic neurological disorders. Together, these data suggest that the patient experience of motor symptoms plays a role in depression and anxiety—a finding that warrants consideration when evaluating, treating, and following movement disorder patients who are candidates for DBS.

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Michael A. Williams, Sean J. Nagel, Mark G. Luciano, Norman Relkin, Thomas J. Zwimpfer, Heather Katzen, Richard Holubkov, Abhay Moghekar, Jeffrey H. Wisoff, Guy M. McKhann II, James Golomb, Richard J. Edwards and Mark G. Hamilton

OBJECTIVE

The authors describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of the first 517 patients enrolled in the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (AHCRN) during its first 2 years.

METHODS

Adults ≥ 18 years were nonconsecutively enrolled in a registry at 6 centers. Four categories of adult hydrocephalus were defined: transition (treated before age 18 years), unrecognized congenital (congenital pattern, not treated before age 18 years), acquired (secondary to known risk factors, treated or untreated), and suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) (≥ age 65 years, not previously treated). Data include etiology, symptoms, examination findings, neuropsychology screening, comorbidities, treatment, complications, and outcomes. Standard evaluations were administered to all patients by trained examiners, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Beck Depression Inventory–II, the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form symptom bother, the 10-Meter Walk Test, the Boon iNPH gait scale, the Lawton Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL) questionnaire, the iNPH grading scale, and the modified Rankin Scale.

RESULTS

Overall, 517 individuals were enrolled. Age ranged from 18.1 to 90.7 years, with patients in the transition group (32.7 ± 10.0 years) being the youngest and those in the suspected iNPH group (76.5 ± 5.2 years) being the oldest. The proportion of patients in each group was as follows: 16.6% transition, 26.5% unrecognized congenital, 18.2% acquired, and 38.7% suspected iNPH. Excluding the 86 patients in the transition group, who all had received treatment, 79.4% of adults in the remaining 3 groups had not been treated at the time of enrollment. Patients in the suspected iNPH group had the poorest performance in cognitive evaluations, and those in the unrecognized congenital group had the best performance. The same pattern was seen in the Lawton ADL/IADL scores. Gait velocity was lowest in patients in the suspected iNPH group. Categories that had the most comorbidities (suspected iNPH) or etiologies of hydrocephalus that directly cause neurological injury (transition, acquired) had greater degrees of impairment compared to unrecognized congenital, which had the fewest comorbidities or etiologies associated with neurological injury.

CONCLUSIONS

The clinical spectrum of hydrocephalus in adults comprises more than iNPH or acquired hydrocephalus. Only 39% of patients had suspected iNPH, whereas 43% had childhood onset (i.e., those in the transition and unrecognized congenital groups). The severity of symptoms and impairment was worsened when the etiology of the hydrocephalus or complications of treatment caused additional neurological injury or when multiple comorbidities were present. However, more than half of patients in the transition, unrecognized congenital, and acquired hydrocephalus groups had minimal or no impairment. Excluding the transition group, nearly 80% of patients in the AHCRN registry were untreated at the time of enrollment. A future goal for the AHCRN is to determine whether patients with unrecognized congenital and acquired hydrocephalus need treatment and which patients in the suspected iNPH cohort actually have possible hydrocephalus and should undergo further diagnostic testing. Future prospective research is needed in the diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, quality of life, and macroeconomics of all categories of adult hydrocephalus.

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Lilyana Angelov, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Elizabeth E. Bennett, Mahmoud Abbassy, Paul Elson, Samuel T. Chao, Joshua S. Montgomery, Ghaith Habboub, Michael A. Vogelbaum, John H. Suh, Erin S. Murphy, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Sean J. Nagel and Gene H. Barnett

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the primary modality for treating brain metastases. However, effective radiosurgical control of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm in maximum diameter remains challenging and is associated with suboptimal local control (LC) rates of 37%–62% and an increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. To enhance LC while limiting adverse effects (AEs) of radiation in these patients, a dose-dense treatment regimen using 2-staged SRS (2-SSRS) was used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment strategy.

METHODS

Fifty-four patients (with 63 brain metastases ≥ 2 cm) treated with 2-SSRS were evaluated as part of an institutional review board–approved retrospective review. Volumetric measurements at first-stage stereotactic radiosurgery (first SSRS) and second-stage SRS (second SSRS) treatments and on follow-up imaging studies were determined. In addition to patient demographic data and tumor characteristics, the study evaluated 3 primary outcomes: 1) response at first follow-up MRI, 2) time to local progression (TTP), and 3) overall survival (OS) with 2-SSRS. Response was analyzed using methods for binary data, TTP was analyzed using competing-risks methods to account for patients who died without disease progression, and OS was analyzed using conventional time-to-event methods. When needed, analyses accounted for multiple lesions in the same patient.

RESULTS

Among 54 patients, 46 (85%) had 1 brain metastasis treated with 2-SSRS, 7 patients (13%) had 2 brain metastases concurrently treated with 2-SSRS, and 1 patient underwent 2-SSRS for 3 concurrent brain metastases ≥ 2 cm. The median age was 63 years (range 23–83 years), 23 patients (43%) had non–small cell lung cancer, and 14 patients (26%) had radioresistant tumors (renal or melanoma). The median doses at first and second SSRS were 15 Gy (range 12–18 Gy) and 15 Gy (range 12–15 Gy), respectively. The median duration between stages was 34 days, and median tumor volumes at the first and second SSRS were 10.5 cm3 (range 2.4–31.3 cm3) and 7.0 cm3 (range 1.0–29.7 cm3). Three-month follow-up imaging results were available for 43 lesions; the median volume was 4.0 cm3 (range 0.1–23.1 cm3). The median change in volume compared with baseline was a decrease of 54.9% (range −98.2% to 66.1%; p < 0.001). Overall, 9 lesions (14.3%) demonstrated local progression, with a median of 5.2 months (range 1.3–7.4 months), and 7 (11.1%) demonstrated AEs (6.4% Grade 1 and 2 toxicity; 4.8% Grade 3). The estimated cumulative incidence of local progression at 6 months was 12% ± 4%, corresponding to an LC rate of 88%. Shorter TTP was associated with greater tumor volume at baseline (p = 0.01) and smaller absolute (p = 0.006) and relative (p = 0.05) decreases in tumor volume from baseline to second SSRS. Estimated OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 65% ± 7% and 49% ± 8%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

2-SSRS is an effective treatment modality that resulted in significant reduction of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm, with excellent 3-month (95%) and 6-month (88%) LC rates and an overall AE rate of 11%. Prospective studies with larger cohorts and longer follow-up are necessary to assess the durability and toxicities of 2-SSRS.

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Monica Mureb, Danielle Golub, Carolina Benjamin, Jason Gurewitz, Ben A. Strickland, Gabriel Zada, Eric Chang, Dušan Urgošík, Roman Liščák, Ronald E. Warnick, Herwin Speckter, Skyler Eastman, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Samir Patel, Caleb E. Feliciano, Carlos H. Carbini, David Mathieu, William Leduc, DCS, Sean J. Nagel, Yusuke S. Hori, Yi-Chieh Hung, Akiyoshi Ogino, Andrew Faramand, Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, Jason Sheehan and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain condition that is difficult to control with conservative management. Furthermore, disabling medication-related side effects are common. This study examined how stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) affects pain outcomes and medication dependence based on the latency period between diagnosis and radiosurgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with type I TN at 12 Gamma Knife treatment centers. SRS was the primary surgical intervention in all patients. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, treatment plans, medication histories, and outcomes were reviewed.

RESULTS

Overall, 404 patients were included. The mean patient age at SRS was 70 years, and 60% of the population was female. The most common indication for SRS was pain refractory to medications (81%). The median maximum radiation dose was 80 Gy (range 50–95 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 32 months. The mean number of medications between baseline (pre-SRS) and the last follow-up decreased from 1.98 to 0.90 (p < 0.0001), respectively, and this significant reduction was observed across all medication categories. Patients who received SRS within 4 years of their initial diagnosis achieved significantly faster pain relief than those who underwent treatment after 4 years (median 21 vs 30 days, p = 0.041). The 90-day pain relief rate for those who received SRS ≤ 4 years after their diagnosis was 83.8% compared with 73.7% in patients who received SRS > 4 years after their diagnosis. The maximum radiation dose was the strongest predictor of a durable pain response (OR 1.091, p = 0.003). Early intervention (OR 1.785, p = 0.007) and higher maximum radiation dose (OR 1.150, p < 0.0001) were also significant predictors of being pain free (a Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity score of I–IIIA) at the last follow-up visit. New sensory symptoms of any kind were seen in 98 patients (24.3%) after SRS. Higher maximum radiation dose trended toward predicting new sensory deficits but was nonsignificant (p = 0.075).

CONCLUSIONS

TN patients managed with SRS within 4 years of diagnosis experienced a shorter interval to pain relief with low risk. SRS also yielded significant decreases in adjunct medication utilization. Radiosurgery should be considered earlier in the course of treatment for TN.