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Scellig S. D. Stone and Benjamin C. Warf

Object

Combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) enhances the likelihood of shunt freedom over ETV alone, and thus avoidance of shunt-related morbidity, in hydrocephalic infants. To date, virtually all published reports describe experiences in Africa, thus hampering generalization to other parts of the world. Here, the authors report the first North American prospective series of this combined approach to treat hydrocephalus of various etiologies in infants.

Methods

A prospective series of 50 boys and 41 girls (mean and median ages 4.7 and 3.2 months, respectively) with hydrocephalus underwent ETV/CPC performed by the senior author at Boston Children's Hospital from August 2009 through March 2014. Success data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model.

Results

The 91 patients treated included those with aqueductal stenosis (23), myelomeningocele (23), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (25), Dandy-Walker complex (6), post-infectious hydrocephalus (6), and other conditions (8). Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, 57% of patients required no further hydrocephalus treatment at 1 year. Moreover, 65% remained shunt free to the limit of available follow-up (maximum roughly 4 years). A Cox proportional hazards model identified the following independent predictors of ETV/CPC failure: post-infectious etiology, age at treatment younger than 6 months, prepontine cistern scarring, and prior CSF diversion. Of patients with at least 6 months of follow-up, the overall ETV/CPC success at 6 months (59%) exceeded that predicted by the ETV Success Score (45%). Complications included 1 CSF leak and 1 transient syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and there were no deaths.

Conclusions

ETV/CPC is an effective, safe, and durable treatment for infant hydrocephalus in a North American population, with 1-year success rates similar to those reported in Africa and equivalent to those for primary shunt placement in North America. These findings underscore the need for prospective multicenter studies of the outcomes, quality of life, and economic impact of the procedure compared with primary shunt insertion.

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Scellig S. D. Stone and James T. Rutka

The management of medically refractory epilepsy poses both a valuable therapeutic opportunity and a formidable technical challenge to epilepsy surgeons. Recent decades have produced significant advancements in the capabilities and availability of adjunctive tools in epilepsy surgery. In particular, image-based neuronavigation and electrophysiological neuromonitoring represent versatile and informative modalities that can assist a surgeon in performing safe and effective resections. In the present article the authors discuss these 2 subjects with reference to how they can be applied and what evidence supports their use. As technologies evolve with demonstrated and potential utility, it is important for all clinicians who deal with epilepsy to understand where neuronavigation and neuromonitoring stand in the present and what avenues for improvement exist for the future.

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Sarah C. Jernigan, Scellig S. D. Stone, Joshua P. Aronson, Melissa Putman and Mark R. Proctor

Patients with shunted hydrocephalus presenting with altered mental status and ventriculomegaly are generally considered to be in shunt failure requiring surgical treatment. The authors describe a case of shunted hydrocephalus secondary to a disseminated neuroectodermal tumor in a pediatric patient in whom rapid fluctuations in sodium levels due to diabetes insipidus repeatedly led to significant changes in ventricle size, with invasively confirmed normal shunt function and low intracranial pressure. This clinical picture exactly mimics shunt malfunction, requires urgent nonsurgical therapy, and underscores the importance of considering serum osmolar abnormalities in the differential diagnosis for ventriculomegaly.

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Paul J. Marano, Scellig S. D. Stone, John Mugamba, Peter Ssenyonga, Ezra B. Warf and Benjamin C. Warf

OBJECT

The role of reopening an obstructed endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as treatment for ETV failure is not well defined. The authors studied 215 children with ETV closure who underwent successful repeat ETV to determine the indications, long-term success, and factors affecting outcome.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda database from August 2001 through December 2012, identifying 215 children with failed ETV (with or without prior choroid plexus cauterization [CPC]) who underwent reopening of an obstructed ETV stoma. Treatment survival according to sex, age at first and second operation, time to failure of first operation, etiology of hydrocephalus, prior CPC, and mode of ETV obstruction (simple stoma closure, second membrane, or cisternal obstruction from arachnoid scarring) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Survival differences among groups were assessed using log-rank and Wilcoxon methods and a Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS

There were 125 boys and 90 girls with mean and median ages of 229 and 92 days, respectively, at the initial ETV. Mean and median ages at repeat ETV were 347 and 180 days, respectively. Postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH) was the etiology in 126 patients, and nonpostinfectious hydrocephalus (NPIH) in 89. Overall estimated 7-year success for repeat ETV was 51%. Sex (p = 0.46, log-rank test; p = 0.54, Wilcoxon test), age (< vs > 6 months) at initial or repeat ETV (p = 0.08 initial, p = 0.13 repeat; log-rank test), and type of ETV obstruction (p = 0.61, log-rank test) did not affect outcome for repeat ETV (p values ≥ 0.05, Cox regression). Those with a longer time to failure of initial ETV (> 6 months 91%, 3–6 months 60%, < 3 months 42%, p < 0.01; log-rank test), postinfectious etiology (PIH 58% vs NPIH 42%, p = 0.02; log-rank and Wilcoxon tests) and prior CPC (p = 0.03, log-rank and Wilcoxon tests) had significantly better outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Repeat ETV was successful in half of the patients overall, and was more successful in association with later failures, prior CPC, and PIH. Obstruction of the original ETV by secondary arachnoid scarring was not a negative prognostic factor, and should not discourage the surgeon from proceeding. Repeat ETV may be a more durable solution to failed ETV/CPC than shunt placement in this context, especially for failures at more than 3 months after the initial ETV. Some ETV closures may result from an inflammatory response that is less robust at the second operation.

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Shelly Wang, Scellig Stone, Alexander G. Weil, Aria Fallah, Benjamin C. Warf, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia and Abhaya V. Kulkarni

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)/choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has become an increasingly common technique for the treatment of infant hydrocephalus. Both flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy can be used, with little empirical evidence directly comparing the two. Therefore, the authors used a propensity score–matched cohort and survival analysis to assess the comparative efficacy of flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy.

METHODS

Individual data were collected through retrospective review of infants younger than 2 years of age, treated at 1 of 2 hospitals: 1) Boston Children's Hospital, exclusively utilizing flexible neuroendoscopy, and 2) Nicklaus Children's Hospital-Jackson Memorial Hospital, exclusively utilizing rigid neuroendoscopy. Patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were assessed. A propensity score model was developed to balance patient characteristics in the case mix.

RESULTS

A propensity score model for neuroendoscope type was developed with 5 independent variables: chronological age, sex, hydrocephalus etiology, prior CSF diversion, and prepontine scarring. Propensity score decile-adjusted and 1-to-1 nearest-neighbor matching analysis revealed that compared with flexible neuroendoscopy, rigid neuroendoscopy had an ETV/CPC failure odds ratio (OR) of 1.43 (p = 0.31) and 1.31 (p = 0.47), respectively, compared with an unadjusted OR of 2.40 (p = 0.034). Furthermore, in a Cox regression analysis controlled by propensity score, rigid neuroendoscopy had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.10 (p = 0.70), compared with an unadjusted HR of 1.61 (p = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS

Although unadjusted analysis suggested worse ETV/CPC outcomes for infants treated by rigid neuroendoscopy, much of the difference could be attributed to the case mix and other predictors of outcome. A larger sample observational study or randomized controlled trials are required to provide evidence-based guidelines on ETV/CPC technique.

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Malia McAvoy, Heather J. McCrea, Vamsidhar Chavakula, Hoon Choi, Wenya Linda Bi, Rania A. Mekary, Scellig Stone and Mark R. Proctor

OBJECTIVE

Few studies describe long-term functional outcomes of pediatric patients who have undergone lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) because of the rarity of pediatric disc herniation and the short follow-up periods. The authors analyzed risk factors, clinical presentation, complications, and functional outcomes of a single-institution series of LMD patients over a 19-year period.

METHODS

A retrospective case series was conducted of pediatric LMD patients at a large pediatric academic hospital from 1998 to 2017. The authors examined premorbid risk factors, clinical presentation, physical examination findings, type and duration of conservative management, indications for surgical intervention, complications, and postoperative outcomes.

RESULTS

Over the 19-year study period, 199 patients underwent LMD at the authors’ institution. The mean age at presentation was 16.0 years (range 12–18 years), and 55.8% were female. Of these patients, 70.9% participated in competitive sports, and among those who did not play sports, 65.0% had a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. Prior to surgery, conservative management had failed in 98.0% of the patients. Only 3 patients (1.5%) presented with cauda equina syndrome requiring emergent microdiscectomy. Complications included 4 cases of postoperative CSF leak (2.0%), 1 case of a noted intraoperative CSF leak, and 3 cases of wound infection (1.5%). At the first postoperative follow-up appointment, minimal or no pain was reported by 93.3% of patients. The mean time to return to sports was 9.8 weeks. During a mean follow-up duration of 8.2 years, 72.9% of patients did not present again after routine postoperative appointments. The total risk of reoperation was a rate of 7.5% (3.5% of patients underwent reoperation for the same level; 4.5% underwent adjacent-level decompression, and one patient [0.5%] ultimately underwent a fusion).

CONCLUSIONS

Microdiscectomy is a safe and effective treatment for long-term relief of pain and return to daily activities among pediatric patients with symptomatic lumbar disc disease in whom conservative management has failed.

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Jennifer M. Strahle, Rukayat Taiwo, Christine Averill, James Torner, Chevis N. Shannon, Christopher M. Bonfield, Gerald F. Tuite, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Jerrel Rutlin, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, John C. Wellons III, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Francesco T. Mangano, James M. Johnston, Manish N. Shah, Bermans J. Iskandar, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, David J. Daniels, Eric M. Jackson, Gerald A. Grant, Daniel E. Couture, P. David Adelson, Tord D. Alden, Philipp R. Aldana, Richard C. E. Anderson, Nathan R. Selden, Lissa C. Baird, Karin Bierbrauer, Joshua J. Chern, William E. Whitehead, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Herbert E. Fuchs, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Mark R. Iantosca, W. Jerry Oakes, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus R. Khan, Michael S. Muhlbauer, J. Gordon McComb, Arnold H. Menezes, John Ragheb, Jodi L. Smith, Cormac O. Maher, Stephanie Greene, Michael Kelly, Brent R. O’Neill, Mark D. Krieger, Mandeep Tamber, Susan R. Durham, Greg Olavarria, Scellig S. D. Stone, Bruce A. Kaufman, Gregory G. Heuer, David F. Bauer, Gregory Albert, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Scott D. Wait, Mark D. Van Poppel, Ramin Eskandari, Timothy Mapstone, Joshua S. Shimony, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Matthew D. Smyth, Tae Sung Park and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors’ goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis.

METHODS

A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°).

RESULTS

Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB–C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude.

CONCLUSIONS

Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.