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Makoto Ohe, Hiroshi Moridaira, Satoshi Inami, Daisaku Takeuchi, Yutaka Nohara and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

Instrumentation failure caused by the loosening of pedicle screws (PSs) in patients with osteoporosis is a serious problem after spinal surgery. The addition of a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) surface coating applied by using a sputtering process was reported recently to be a promising method for providing bone conduction around an implant without a significant risk of coating-layer breakage. In this study, the authors evaluated the biomechanical and histological features of the bone-implant interface (BII) of PSs with a thin HA coating in an in vivo porcine osteoporotic spine model.

METHODS

Three types of PSs (untreated/standard [STPS], sandblasted [BLPS], and HA-coated [HAPS] PSs) were implanted into the thoracic and lumbar spine (T9–L6) of 8 mature Clawn miniature pigs (6 ovariectomized [osteoporosis group] and 2 sham-operated [control group] pigs). The spines were harvested from the osteoporosis group at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 weeks after PS placement and from the control group at 0 or 24 weeks. Their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by peripheral quantitative CT. Histological evaluation of the BIIs was conducted by performing bone volume/tissue volume and bone surface/implant surface measurements. The strength of the BII was evaluated with extraction torque testing.

RESULTS

The BMD decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.01). HAPSs exhibited the greatest mean extraction peak torque at 8 weeks, and HAPSs and BLPSs exhibited significantly greater mean torque than the STPSs at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). The bone surface/implant surface ratio was significantly higher for HAPSs than for STPSs after 2 weeks (p < 0.05), and bonding between bone and the implant surface was maintained until 24 weeks with no detachment of the coating layer. In contrast, the bone volume/tissue volume ratio was significantly higher for HAPSs than for BLPSs or STPSs only at 4 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS

Using PSs with a thin HA coating applied using a sputtering process strengthens bonding at the BII, which might improve early implant fixation after spinal surgery for osteoporosis. However, the absence of increased bone mass around the screw remains a concern; prescribing osteoporosis treatment to improve bone quality might be necessary to prevent fractures around the screws.

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Hideyuki Arima, Steven D. Glassman, Keith Bridwell, Yu Yamato, Mitsuru Yagi, Kota Watanabe, Morio Matsumoto, Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Taneichi, Yukihiro Matsuyama and Leah Y. Carreon

OBJECTIVE

The Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r) has been shown to be reliable, valid, and responsive to change in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) undergoing surgery. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is the smallest difference in a health-related quality of life score that is considered to be worthwhile or clinically important to the individual. The authors hypothesized that the proportion of patients with ASD achieving an MCID in the SRS-22r score would be different between two culturally different cohorts. The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of patients with ASD achieving MCID for the SRS-22r domains in North American (NA) and Japanese cohorts.

METHODS

A total of 137 patients from North America (123 women, mean age 60.0 years) and 60 patients from Japan (56 women, mean age 65.5 years) with at least 2 years of follow-up after corrective spine surgery for ASD were included. Except for self-image, published Japanese MCID values of SRS-22r for ASD were higher (function = 0.90, pain = 0.85, self-image = 1.05, subtotal = 1.05) than the published NA MCID values (function = 0.60, pain = 0.40, self-image = 1.23, subtotal = 0.43).

RESULTS

There was a statistically significant improvement in all SRS-22r domain scores at 2 years compared to baseline in both cohorts. Except for mental health (NA = 0.32, Japanese = 0.72, p = 0.005), the mean improvement from baseline to 2 years was similar between the NA and Japanese cohorts. The proportion of patients achieving MCID was higher in North America for function (NA = 51%, Japanese = 30%, p = 0.006), pain (NA = 80%, Japanese = 47%, p < 0.001), and subtotal (NA = 72%, Japanese = 35%, p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference for self-image (NA = 53%, Japanese = 58%, p = 0.454).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite similar improvements in SRS-22r domain scores from baseline to 2 years postoperatively, the proportion of patients reaching SRS-22r MCID for function, pain, and subtotal after ASD surgery was higher in the NA cohort than in the Japanese cohort. This may imply that patients in North America and Japan may value observed changes in clinical status differently.

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Takafumi Chiba, Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Moridaira, Daisaku Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Sorimachi, Haruki Ueda, Makoto Ohe, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Iimura, Yutaka Nohara and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to show the surgical results of growing rod (GR) surgery with prior foundation surgery (PFS) and sublaminar taping at an apex vertebra.

METHODS

Twenty-two early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients underwent dual GR surgery with PFS and sublaminar taping. PFS was performed prior to rod placement, including exposure of distal and proximal anchor areas and anchor instrumentation filled with a local bone graft. After a period of 3–5 months for the anchors to become solid, dual rods were placed for distraction. The apex vertebra was exposed and fastened to the concave side of the rods using sublaminar tape. Preoperative, post–GR placement, and final follow-up radiographic parameters were measured. Complications during the treatment period were evaluated using the patients’ clinical records.

RESULTS

The median age at the initial surgery was 55.5 months (range 28–99 months), and the median follow-up duration was 69.5 months (range 25–98 months). The median scoliotic curves were 81.5° (range 39°–126°) preoperatively, 30.5° (range 11°–71°) after GR placement, and 33.5° (range 12°–87°) at the final follow-up. The median thoracic kyphotic curves were 45.5° (range 7°–136°) preoperatively, 32.5° (range 15°–99°) after GR placement, and 42° (range 11°–93°) at the final follow-up. The median T1–S1 lengths were 240.5 mm (range 188–305 mm) preoperatively, 286.5 mm (range 232–340 mm) after GR placement, and 337.5 mm (range 206–423 mm) at the final follow-up. Complications occurred in 6 patients (27%). Three patients had implant-related complications, 2 patients had alignment-related complications, and 1 patient had a wound-related complication.

CONCLUSIONS

A dual GR technique with PFS and sublaminar taping showed effective correction of scoliotic curves and a lower complication rate than previous reports when a conventional dual GR technique was used.