Satoru Takeuchi, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Yoichi Uozumi, and Naoki Otani
Satoru Takeuchi, Kojiro Wada, Kimihiro Nagatani, Naoki Otani, and Kentaro Mori
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is devastating, with high mortality rates, but its optimum management has not been fully established. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is a surgical procedure used to relieve the malignant elevation of intracranial pressure. The application of decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with hemispheric ICH has been much less common, although several studies have shown the usefulness of this procedure for large hemispheric ICH. In this review, the present knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this procedure are evaluated. The authors conclude that decompressive hemicraniectomy with hematoma evacuation for large ICH might be a safe and effective procedure in patients with severely disturbed consciousness and large hematoma volume.
Satoru Takeuchi, Kimihiro Nagatani, Naoki Otani, and Hiroshi Nawashiro
Kimihiro Nagatani, Satoru Takeuchi, Naoki Otani, and Hiroshi Nawashiro
Satoru Takeuchi, Kimihiro Nagatani, Naoki Otani, and Hiroshi Nawashiro
Naoki Otani, Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, and Satoru Takeuchi
Pineal region meningiomas are rare and tend to be discovered only after they grow. Several simultaneous multidirectional approaches performed as a single operation have been proposed, but the best strategy to remove these deeply situated large meningiomas involving the deep vital venous system remains to be established. The authors advocate a multistaged, multidirectional approach to safely remove these challenging tumors.
Four consecutive cases of meningioma in the pineal region were treated between April 2013 and June 2016. The 3 large (> 40 mm diameter) tumors were removed via multistaged, multidirectional approaches (2 surgeries in 2 patients and 3 surgeries in 1 patient) with gravity retraction of the occipital or parietal lobe. The large occipital skin incision extending bilaterally was used for the next operation from the contralateral side. Combinations of the occipital transtentorial approach with or without the transfalcine approach, occipital bitranstentorial/falcine approach, combined supra-/infratentorial transsinus approach, and contralateral parietal interhemispheric transcallosal approach were used.
Transient visual field deficits occurred after 2 of the 8 operations, but all tumors were removed grossly or subtotally without permanent surgery-related morbidity. The galenic venous system and straight sinus remained intact in all patients. During the follow-up period (mean 29.5 months [range 13–52 months]), there were no recurrences after the final operation.
A multistaged, multidirectional strategy with an intentional large occipital scalp incision and gravity retraction of the occipital lobe is a good choice for the safe removal of large meningiomas in the pineal region.
Kosuke Kumagai, Arata Tomiyama, Satoru Takeuchi, Naoki Otani, Masanori Fujita, Kazuya Fujii, Kojiro Wada, and Kentaro Mori
Delayed brain injury (DBI) is considered one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, no suitable experimental rat endovascular perforation (EVP) SAH model was available for investigating DBI. The authors added early cerebral hypoperfusion to a mild EVP SAH model by unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) 24 hours after induction of SAH to mimic the clinical course of early cerebral hypoperfusion after SAH.
A total of 109 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: no SAH and SAH. Next, no-SAH rats were randomly divided on day 1 into 2 groups: sham and UCCAO. SAH rats with a neurological score of 15 or greater were randomly divided into 2 groups: SAH − UCCAO and SAH + UCCAO group.
The mild SAH model had a lower mortality rate of 5.4% within the first 24 hours. No rat died in the SAH + UCCAO group until day 7. DBI as well as early brain injury (EBI), reactive astrogliosis, and cerebral vasospasm significantly worsened in the SAH + UCCAO group.
The present SAH + UCCAO model can simulate EBI with aggravation of reactive astrogliosis, cerebral vasospasm, and DBI but without high mortality.
Kyousuke Kamada, Hiroshi Ogawa, Christoph Kapeller, Robert Prueckl, Satoru Hiroshima, Yukie Tamura, Fumiya Takeuchi, and Christoph Guger
Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that intractable epilepsy involves pathological functional networks as well as strong epileptogenic foci. Combining cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) recording and tractography is a useful strategy for mapping functional connectivity in normal and pathological networks. In this study, the authors sought to demonstrate the efficacy of preoperative combined CCEP recording, high gamma activity (HGA) mapping, and tractography for surgical planning, and of intraoperative CCEP measures for confirmation of selective pathological network disconnection.
The authors treated 4 cases of intractable epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging–based tractography data were acquired before the first surgery for subdural grid implantation. HGA and CCEP investigations were done after the first surgery, before the second surgery was performed to resect epileptogenic foci, with continuous CCEP monitoring during resection.
All 4 patients in this report had measurable pathological CCEPs. The mean negative peak-1 latency of normal CCEPs related to language functions was 22.2 ± 3.5 msec, whereas pathological CCEP latencies varied between 18.1 and 22.4 msec. Pathological CCEPs diminished after complete disconnection in all cases. At last follow-up, all of the patients were in long-term postoperative seizure-free status, although 1 patient still suffered from visual aura every other month.
Combined CCEP measurement, HGA mapping, and tractography greatly facilitated targeted disconnection of pathological networks in this study. Although CCEP recording requires technical expertise, it allows for assessment of pathological network involvement in intractable epilepsy and may improve seizure outcome.
Terushige Toyooka, Naoki Otani, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Satoru Takeuchi, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Takashi Fujii, and Kentaro Mori
The head-up display (HUD) is a modern technology that projects images or numeric information directly into the observer’s sight line. Surgeons will no longer need to look away from the surgical view using the HUD system to confirm the preoperative or navigation image. The present study investigated the usefulness of the HUD system for performing cerebral aneurysm clipping surgeries.
Thirty-five patients underwent clipping surgery, including 20 keyhole surgeries for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, using the HUD system. Image information of structures such as the skull, cerebral vasculature, and aneurysm was integrated by the navigation software and linked with the positional coordinates of the microscope field of view. “Image injection” allowed visualization of the main structures that were concurrently tracked by the navigation image, and “closed shutter” switched the microscope field of view and the pointer image of the 3D brain image.
The HUD system was effective for estimating the location and 3D anatomy of the aneurysm before craniotomy or dural opening in most patients. Scheduled keyhole minicraniotomy and opening of the sylvian fissure or partial rectal gyrus resection were performed on the optimized location with a minimum size in 20 patients.
The HUD images superimposed on the microscope field of view were remarkably useful for less invasive and more safe aneurysm clipping and, in particular, keyhole clipping.