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Hitoshi Fukuda, Kosuke Hayashi, Takafumi Moriya, Satoru Nakashita, Benjamin W. Y. Lo and Sen Yamagata

OBJECT

Intrasylvian hematoma (ISH) is a subtype of intracranial hematoma caused by aneurysmal rupture and often presents with a poor initial neurological grade; it is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with ISH.

METHODS

Data for 97 patients with poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade IV or V) were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database. Ultra-early surgical clipping, removal of hematoma, external decompression for brain swelling, and prevention of vasospasm by cisternal irrigation with milrinone were combined as an aggressive treatment. Characteristics and clinical courses of SAH with ISH were identified. The authors also evaluated any correlations between poor admission-grade SAH and ISH with good functional outcome.

RESULTS

Patients with poor admission-grade SAH and with ISH were more likely to have initial cerebral edema (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test), which significantly resolved overtime (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). These patients had a better chance of functional survival (modified Rankin Scale scores of 1–3; OR 5.75; 95% CI 1.36–24.3; p = 0.017) at 6 months after hospital discharge, after adjustment for potential confounders such as younger age and better initial neurological grade by multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

ISH predicted good functional recovery from poor-grade aneurysmal SAH.

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Satoshi Kato, Hideki Murakami, Satoru Demura, Katsuhito Yoshioka, Hiroyuki Hayashi, Noriaki Yokogawa, Xiang Fang and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

OBJECT

Several surgical procedures have been developed to treat thoracic OPLL (ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament). However, favorable surgical results are not always achieved, and consistent protocols and procedures for surgical treatment of OPLL in this region have not been established. Beak-type OPLL in the thoracic spine is known to be the most complicated form of OPLL to treat surgically. In this study, the authors examine the clinical outcomes after anterior decompression via a posterolateral approach for beak-type OPLL in the thoracic spine and address the gradual spinal cord decompression caused by migration of the floated plaques after surgery.

METHODS

Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 12 patients with thoracic myelopathy due to OPLL were surgically treated at the authors’ institute. The study group for this paper comprises 6 of those 12 patients. These 6 patients, who had beak-type OPLL, underwent with anterior decompression and instrumented fusion via the authors’ posterolateral approach-based surgical technique. The other 6 patients, who exhibited other types of OPLL, underwent posterior decompression and instrumented fusion. In the study group (the 6 patients with beak-type OPLL), half of the patients (the 3 patients who were treated first) were treated with removal of the ossified ligament. These patients are referred to as the removal group. The other 3 patients were treated by means of “floating” the OPLL plaques and are referred to as the floating group. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated in these 6 cases.

RESULTS

The recovery rates were 52.4% in the removal group and 60.0% in the floating group. Two patients in the removal group had operative complications, including a dural tear and temporary neurological deterioration. No operative complications were encountered in the floating group. In all 3 cases in the floating group, floating of the ossified ligament was completely achieved, and the floated plaque gradually migrated into the ventral bone resection areas. The mean migration distances of the floated plaque were 2.4 mm, 4.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 4.8 mm at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Treatment of beak-type OPLL in the thoracic spine via the posterolateral approach-based floating plaque technique was safe and effective in this small case series. Gradual migration of the floated plaques provided additional spinal cord decompression during the postoperative course.

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Satoshi Kato, Hideki Murakami, Satoru Demura, Katsuhito Yoshioka, Hiroyuki Hayashi and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

Several surgical procedures have been developed to treat thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). However, favorable surgical results are not always achieved, and consistent protocols and procedures for surgical treatment of thoracic OPLL have not been established. This technical note describes a novel technique to achieve anterior decompression via a single posterior approach. Three patients with a beak-type thoracic OPLL underwent surgery in which the authors' technique was used. Complete removal of the ossified PLL was achieved in all cases. With the patient in the prone position, the authors performed total resection of the posterior elements at the anterior decompression levels. This maneuver included not only laminectomies but also removal of the transverse processes and pedicles, which allowed space to be created bilaterally at the sides of the dural sac for the subsequent anterior decompression. The thoracic nerves at the levels of anterior decompression were ligated bilaterally and lifted up to manipulate the ossified ligament and the dural sac. An anterior decompression was then performed posteriorly. The PLL was floated without any difficulty. After exfoliation of the adhesions between the ossified ligament and the ventral aspect of the dural sac, the ossified PLL was removed. In every step of the anterior decompression, the space created in the bilateral sides of the dural sac allowed the surgeons to see the OPLL and anterolateral aspect of the dural sac directly and easily. After removal of the ossified PLL, posterior instrumented fusion was performed. This surgical procedure allows the surgeon to perform, safely and effectively, anterior decompression via a posterior approach for thoracic OPLL.

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Hitoshi Fukuda, Hitoshi Ninomiya, Yusuke Ueba, Tsuyoshi Ohta, Toshiaki Kaneko, Tomohito Kadota, Fumihiro Hamada, Naoki Fukui, Motonobu Nonaka, Yuya Watari, Shota Nishimoto, Maki Fukuda, Satoru Hayashi, Tomohiko Izumidani, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Akihito Moriki, Benjamin Lo and Tetsuya Ueba

OBJECTIVE

Several environmental factors have been reported to correlate with incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, because of different patient selection and study designs among these studies, meteorological factors that trigger the incidence of SAH in a short hazard period remain unknown. Among meteorological factors, daily temperature changes may disrupt and violate homeostasis and predispose to cerebrovascular circulatory disturbances and strokes. The authors aimed to investigate whether a decline in the temperature from the highest of the previous day to the lowest of the event day (temperature decline from the previous day [TDP]) triggers SAH in the prefecture-wide stroke database.

METHODS

All 28 participating institutions with primary or comprehensive stroke centers located throughout Kochi Prefecture, Japan, were included in the study. Data collected between January 2012 and December 2016 were analyzed, and 715 consecutive SAH patients with a defined date of onset were enrolled. Meteorological data in this period were obtained from the Kochi Local Meteorological Observatory. A case-crossover study was performed to investigate association of TDP and other environmental factors with onset of SAH.

RESULTS

The increasing TDP in 1°C on the day of the SAH event was associated with an increased incidence of SAH (OR 1.041, 95% CI 1.007–1.077) after adjustment for other environmental factors. According to the stratified analysis, a significant association between TDP and SAH was observed in women, patients < 65 years old, and patients with weekday onset. Among these factors, increasing TDP had a great impact on SAH onset in patients < 65 years old (p = 0.028, Mann-Whitney U-test).

CONCLUSIONS

TDP, temperature decline from the highest of the previous day to the lowest of the day, was correlated with the incidence of spontaneous SAH, particularly in younger patients < 65 years old.